Cultivation techniques of jasmine
Jasmine cultivation technology [nongguangtiandi] video from CCTV nongguangtiandi
[nongguangtiandi] cultivation techniques of Jasmine (20140915)
The main content of this program: jasmine is also called Xianghun, Mali and Muli flower. The flower buds grow on the top of new shoots, and each inflorescence has 3-5 flower buds. The standard of jasmine picking is white, full, mature and fresh, which can open the fragrant buds orderly in the evening. The first tide flower buds are collected from the beginning of May to the beginning of June, which is called plum blossom. The second tide flower buds are collected from the beginning of July to the beginning of August.
Jasmine is a kind of perennial near Teng shaped evergreen shrub of Oleaceae and jasmine. Jasmine is one of the important raw materials for scented tea. It is easy to select and irrigate in deep and loose soil layer. Deep ploughing, sunning and raking, soil moisture should be adjusted according to the specifications of 110cm wide, 30cm wide and 25cm deep, and two rows of soil moisture should be planted for each soil moisture. Before planting, 15t farmyard manure was used as base fertilizer per hectare, with spacing of 25cm50cm. Sixty thousand plants per hectare were planted. Before planting, the roots were soaked with 1000 times of 25% Shibaoke EC for 5 minutes. It can be cultivated all the year round, but spring and autumn are the best. 2. Strengthen water and fertilizer management
(1) Water management: 1. Root setting water should be poured immediately after planting. ② When planting and sprouting new shoots, timely irrigation, topdressing, weeding and soil cultivation should be paid attention to. Urea is the main topdressing, which is applied frequently and thinly. If the flower field is not dry, do not water it. The weather is continuous and dry. When the soil on the soil surface becomes white, it is irrigated or drenched. ③ Pay attention to drainage. In the flowering season, excessive water will lead to rotten roots and yellow leaves; drought will cause withering leaves and dry flowers, so we should pay special attention to drainage and irrigation. (2) Fertilization: ① fertilization was conducted in spring, summer and autumn. Spring fertilizer is carried out in January every year. 15t farmyard manure and 375kg potassium sulphate compound fertilizer are used per hectare to open shallow furrow and strip in sunny days, combined with soil cultivation; summer fertilizer is applied once a month from May to June and from August to September in autumn, and furrow is opened after each flower ebb and tide, combined with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The annual fertilization amount per hectare is is 915kg urea, 1020kg calcium superphosphate and potassium sulfate compound fertilizer 005ｋｇ。 The proportion of spring fertilizer, summer fertilizer and autumn fertilizer was 50%, 30% and 20%, respectively. ② Top dressing outside the root. In the afternoon, the mixture of urea and potassium was sprayed every two days to control the diseases and insect pests. 3. Pruning and short cutting transplanting, the main branch, the top of branch and flower bud should be removed properly, and 3-4 pairs of leaves should be left when picking. Winter pruning is carried out from December to the first ten days of January of the following year, with large pruning first and then small pruning. In other words, the upper branches should be cut at about 20cm above the ground (the large pruning position will be moved 3cm from the previous year's pruning position), and then the dead branches and residual leaves will be burned in a centralized way [source: www.novmv. COM /], and the thick branches are used for seedling raising, combined with weeding and soil cultivation. In February of each year, before the flower bud is seen, the top capped branch and long branch on the top of jasmine tree shall be cut short, and 2-3 pairs of leaves shall be reserved. In the future, each bunch of flowers can be cut short after picking, and the branches should not be inverted. After shaping, a wavy crown will be formed, so that each part of the crown will have sufficient light, which is conducive to breeding flower buds, forming a three-dimensional crown, and improving yield. At present, the main diseases and insect pests of jasmine flower are white silk blight, jasmine bud moth, leaf mite, cotton bollworm and thrips. Based on the principle of prevention first and prevention more important than treatment, pesticides with high efficiency, low toxicity and low residue should be selected. Spray 1 500-800% of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and 1 500-800% of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. For the control of jasmine moth, leaf mite, cotton bollworm, etc., spray with 2500-3000 times of 18% abadine EC or 1000 times of 40% loxben EC, once every 7 days, three times continuously. After big pruning every year, spray 1000 times of 50% sulfur SC to protect the wound. Collection, storage and transportation of jasmine flowers (1) harvesting standard of jasmine flowers: white and full, budding, and able to open the fragrant buds in the evening. When jasmine is mature, it should be harvested one by one. The harvested flowers should have flower buds and flower stalks, no insect bud, no yellow green bud, no stem and leaf and other sundries. (2) Storage and transportation: fresh jasmine flowers should be stored in ventilated bamboo Lou and nylon net bags. Avoid sunlight, store in a cool place and sell in time after harvest.
Before the processing of jasmine tea, we need to complete the production of tea body and the treatment of flowers. Flower treatment is mainly to spread, pile and screen the flowers into the factory, so as to promote the opening of flowers. The flowers are divided into large, medium and small flowers, and the tea with different grades or different scenting times is scented respectively. The production of tea body is actually a tea refining operation. Through a series of complex processes, such as screening, cutting and rolling, wind separation, picking and picking, drying and so on, the tea of different grades is extracted (generally, the method of single-stage preparation and multi-stage recovery) is used to prepare scented flower.
The traditional method of scenting jasmine tea is to dry the tea body to 4% - 5% water content (the moisture content of high-grade tea is slightly lower than that of low-grade one), and then the moisture content of reconstitution after each scenting is increased by 0.5% - 1%. The high-grade tea body is generally scented by 2-3, and the medium and low-grade tea bodies are generally 1-2 scented or pressed instead of scented flowers, and finally jacquard should be carried out. For example, three scents and one lift are adopted for the first grade green tea, and the flower amount is 95kg per 100kg, 36 kg, 30 kg and 22kg for each scenting time, and 7kg for jacquard. The process flow is shown in Fig. 1.
In recent ten years, the technology of scenting jasmine tea has been greatly developed in our province Its technical characteristics are that the moisture content of the tea body is controlled at about 10% before scenting (the water content of the first and second grade tea is increased by embossing with jacquard residue, and it is unnecessary to humidify the tea when the moisture content of the first and second grade teas is 7% - 10%, and there is no need for humidification) before scenting. The moisture content after the first scenting is controlled at 12% - 14%, and the moisture content after two scenting is controlled at 18% - 20% After that, the jacquard was dried immediately. The water content at the end of jacquard is controlled below 7.5%. For the famous jasmine tea with four scents and one extraction, it can be divided into two continuous scents, one baking in the middle, three continuous scenting for six scenting and one lifting, and baking for two times. The technology has the characteristics of low energy consumption, low flower consumption, short production cycle, less flower labor and low labor intensity. The practice shows that the cost can be saved by about 30%, and the flower amount can be reduced by more than 25%. For example, if the first grade tea body is used for continuous two scenting and one lifting, the flower amount of each 100 kg tea body for first scenting, continuous second scenting and jacquard is 22, 35 and 6 kg respectively, and the total amount of flowers is 32 kg less than that of the traditional method.