Greenhouse Nectarine planting Management technology of flowering and fruiting period
Greenhouse Nectarine planting Flower and fruit period management technology video from CCTV nongguang Tiandi
[nongguang Tiandi] management of peach blossom and fruit in greenhouse 20170328
In recent years, with the wide application of greenhouse nectarine semi forcing cultivation technology, many farmers began to use this technology to cultivate nectarine. In Hebei, Shandong, Henan and other regions, the cultivation area of Nectarine in greenhouse is growing. Nectarine cultivated in greenhouse can be put into market 1-3 months earlier than that in open field. However, nectarine planted in greenhouse has its own characteristics and requires high management technology. It is impossible to copy the open field cultivation experience. Especially in the flowering and fruiting stage, there are many problems. During the period of peach blossom, we introduced some measures of greenhouse management to the audience.
1. Cultivation management before building shed
1.1 promote before and control after, from seedling planting to early July, strengthen the management of fertilizer and water, and promote the rapid growth of tree crown. After the middle of July, the fertilizer and water should be strictly controlled and the 200 times solution of 15% Paclobutrazol should be sprayed once to inhibit vegetative growth and promote flower bud differentiation.
1.2 when pruning, the natural open center shape of two main branches can be selected in the south, and the natural spindle shape of small crown should be selected in the north. When the new shoots grew to 30cm, they began to pick off the heart twice a year; in the group of short cutting bearing branches, the erect and vigorous shoots on the back were removed.
1.3 from September to October, 5-10kg rotten chicken manure and 0.2kg potassium sulfate were applied to each plant, followed by irrigation.
2 site selection and shed construction
Nectarine greenhouse should be built in leeward to the sun, high and dry terrain, good drainage and irrigation, fertile soil and sandy soil. It can be built in 3-year-old peach forest, or it can be selected to build shed before transplanting. Bamboo wood structure is adopted to build one-sided slope type shed in east-west direction. The back wall is built with hollow cement brick. The back wall is about 3M high, 50-100m long and 8.5m wide. The pillars are 4-5 rows, and the column spacing is about 3M. The thick bamboo pole is used as the beam. The polyethylene non dripping film is used as the shed film. The ventilation hole with a diameter of 30cm is reserved in the back wall every 10m. A 60cm * 60cm skylight is set every 8m at the top center of the shed, and a 60cm * 60cm skylight is set at the front edge There are ventilation windows, and the greenhouse film is covered with more than 3cm thick straw mulch for heat preservation at night.
3. Variety selection
Early maturing varieties, such as Zaohongzhu and may fire, should be selected.
4 seedling transplanting
There is no need for transplanting to build shed in peach forest, and the management of fertilizer and water can be strengthened. Before transplanting seedlings in the new greenhouse, the soil should be turned deep, and each shed should be applied with high-quality organic fertilizer of 4000-5000kg, NPK compound fertilizer of 20kg, and potassium sulfate of 10kg [breeding network: www.jdhsh. COM /]. A strip planting ditch with depth of 60cm and width of 80cm was excavated. The seedlings with strong, plump buds, developed roots and about 3-year-old seedlings were selected. The plant row spacing was 1.5m * 4m, and the ratio of main varieties to pollinated varieties was about 10 ∶ 1. In the process of planting, keep the root system extended, water and cover with plastic film after planting.
5 buckle shed and heating time
After winter pruning of Nectarine in greenhouse, it is generally covered with non dripping film and straw curtain in the middle and late November to make nectarine dormant in closed light, and the temperature is stable at - 2 ~ 7 ℃. In the middle of December, we should pay attention to the gradual increase of temperature.
6 temperature and humidity control
The temperature in the shed can be controlled by opening the tuyere and retracting the straw curtain. At the beginning of temperature rising, the temperature inside the shed should be kept at 5-15 ℃ in the daytime and not lower than 2 ℃ at night; the daytime temperature should be controlled at 18-22 ℃ in the flowering period and 5-8 ℃ in the night; the daytime temperature should be controlled at 20-25 ℃ and the night temperature should be 8-10 ℃; the daytime temperature should be controlled at 20-27 ℃ and the night temperature should be 10-15 ℃; when the outside night air temperature is stable at 8-10 ℃, the curtain or half curtain can be stopped; when the outside night temperature is stable at 10-12 ℃, it can be used Remove the plastic film.
The relative humidity from dormancy stage to flowering stage should be controlled at 70% ~ 80%; the relative humidity should be kept about 50% at flowering stage; the relative humidity should be controlled below 60% from fruit growth to coloring stage; when the humidity in the shed is too high, it can be adjusted by air release; if the humidity is too low, it can be sprayed, sprayed or watered on the ground.
7. Pruning and chemical control
The pruning of Nectarine in greenhouse generally adopts the group structure of high in the north and low in the south. The stem height of the northernmost plant is 45-50 cm, the tree shape is spindle shape, and the tree height is 1.5 m; the stem height of the southernmost plant is about 30 cm, the tree shape is open center shape, and the tree height is 1 m; the middle part gradually increases from south to north, and the tree shape is "Y" shape. Pruning in front of the shed is mainly sparse branches, long stay long, remove diseases and insect branches, down hanging branches, long branches and strong vegetative branches without flowers.
Winter pruning of nectarines in greenhouse.
1) Branch group culture. In one branch group, one branch is reserved with leaf bud preparation, the other branch with flower bud bears fruit in the current year; the branch prepared in the next winter bears fruit, while the branch bearing fruit in the previous year is reserved with leaf bud, so that it is fixed in a certain position and renewed alternately.
2) Keep fruit properly. In general, one flower bud is left in the short fruit branch, 2-3 in the middle fruit branch and 4-5 in the long fruit branch.
3) Total branches. The number of branches and branch groups increased row by row from south to north.
4) If the angle is not open, the lower back branch should be used as the extension head or the method of pulling branch should be used to adjust the angle. When the new shoots grow to 20 ~ 40 cm, they should be removed repeatedly, and the erect branches and over dense branches should be removed at the same time. After the nectarine fruits were harvested in greenhouse, the fruiting branches were timely retracted to stimulate the emergence of new branches and cultivate into new fruiting branches. From July to October, 300-500 times of PP333 solution can be sprayed 2-3 times, or 5-8 times of solution can be used to dry in July, or 2-5 g per plant can be applied in autumn. In winter, the combination of regeneration, retraction, thinning and light cutting of flower branches should be combined, moderate light cutting should be carried out, no flowering branches, over dense branches and thin and weak branches should be removed, more fruiting branches should be reserved, and appropriate retraction and regeneration should be carried out to control the tree vigor.
8 fertilizer and water management
One month before closing the shed, 3000 kg of organic fertilizer, 25 kg of diammonium phosphate and 10 kg of urea were applied to each shed and watered once. After watering, hoes were cut and mulching was covered. In young fruit stage, 0.3% urea solution was sprayed once; in hard kernel stage, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution was sprayed in addition to 0.3% urea solution. The humidity in the shed should be below 60%. Water should be poured once at the hard core stage and fruit expansion stage, but the water quantity should be appropriate and not too large, so as to avoid the vigorous growth of new shoots and physiological fruit drop.
9 management of flowering and fruiting period
Artificial pollination should be carried out in the flowering period. In the bud stage, the over dense flower buds should be removed, and one of the two flowers should be removed, and the abnormal flowers, late flowers and pest flowers should be removed. Fruit thinning began 20 days after anthesis to make the fruit distributed evenly. We should keep single fruit in short branch, double fruit in middle fruit branch and 3-4 fruit in long fruit branch. During the fruit coloring period, the drooping branches are lifted or supported. At the same time, the humidity in the shed should be strictly controlled to prevent fruit dropping and cracking due to excessive humidity.
10 harvest management
Therefore, soil, fertilizer and water management, pest control and pruning are very important.
1、 If the canopy is not fully pruned, it will result in the same growth space as that in the open season. At this time, the outside temperature is low, and the greenhouse peach needs to slow down for a long time, which is a good time for moderate re cutting.
1. Conventional pruning method: 1. Thinning the thin and weak branches, disease and insect branches, dead branches, drooping branches, over dense branches and excessive vigorous branches on the periphery, and opening the light path is conducive to flower bud differentiation. ② The retraction branch group is that the original branch group composed of more than 4-6 fruiting branches is retracted into 2-4 branches, and 2-4 buds of the vigorous branches in the group are cut short to promote the development of new branches and cultivate into new branch groups. ③ Large branches in the lower part of the crown may droop after bearing fruit, so they should be supported and topped to make them grow again. ④ Dense planting often appears the phenomenon of strong upper and lower weak. At this time, the upper vigorous branches should be cut again to remove the strong and retain the weak to inhibit the growth.
2. Double cutting method: ① trunk and "Y" shape were adopted for high density cultivation. After fruit harvest, the opposite branch group was retracted back to the base 2-3 buds (about 5-10 cm in length) to germinate the single bud branch or latent bud at the base, and grow around the trunk and main branch. When the new shoot reached 30 cm, the leaf surface was sprayed with 15% Paclobutrazol 100-300 times solution for 2-3 times, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate was sprayed at the later stage to promote flower bud formation. ② The re retraction can be carried out step by step. One is to cut one side first and then the other side after one week; the second is to cut the lower branch and cut the upper branch after one week, but part of the light blocking branch should be removed from the upper part, especially when the upper part is strong and the lower part is weak, so as to promote the germination of the lower part. ③ A small number of fine branches with intact leaves should be left as the source of organic nutrients for each re cutting, and should not be shaved at one time. You can also use the method of breaking branches, that is, part of the branches are cut again, some branches are broken, and then cut off when the new buds sprout about 10 cm.
2、 The base fertilizer was applied in combination with heavy cutting after harvest, and the furrow was dug once for fertilization. Dig a ditch 50 cm long, 30 cm wide and 25-30 cm deep between the two trees. If the row spacing is larger after thinning, the fertilization ditch can be larger. When the row spacing is 2-3m, a ditch can be dug. In the ditch, the decomposed organic fertilizer was applied, and then mixed with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer, 0.25-0.5 kg per plant.