Development status and Countermeasures of Crisp Plum industry in Bashan
Bashan Crisp Plum is favored by consumers because of its sweet, crisp and refreshing taste, and has a broad market prospect. In order to speed up the development of green Bashan Crisp Plum industry in Tongchuan District of Dazhou City, realize the transformation from large area to strong base area, from industrialization to modernization, and promote the leap forward development of Bashan Crisp Plum industry, Tongchuan District tea fruit station organized professional and technical personnel to go deep into Beiwai, Luojiang, Panshi and other villages and towns to carry out special investigation and Analysis on Bashan Crisp Plum production area The corresponding development countermeasures are put forward.
1、 Basic information
Tongchuan District of Dazhou city belongs to the subtropical humid monsoon climate zone in Sichuan Basin. Its main climatic characteristics are: four distinct seasons, synchronous rain and heat, warm winter, early spring, hot summer, cool autumn, and long frost free period. Rich in soil resources, it belongs to typical hilly landform. The soil is mainly purple soil, suitable for a wide range of species, about 45000 mu, accounting for 90% of the dry land in the region. It is the most suitable development area for Bashan Crisp Plum industry.
2、 Development overview
1. The scale of the base continues to expand. Bashan Crisp Plum is an excellent individual selected from the actual variation of tianjiabang Qingcui plum in Beiwai Town, Tongchuan District. It was identified and named by the expert group of Sichuan crop variety Approval Committee in August 2019. In October that year, Dazhou Crisp Plum with Bashan crisp plum as the main body obtained the agricultural product geographical indication protection product of the Ministry of agriculture. In 2013, the development scale of Bashan Crisp Plum reached 12000 mu, including 7000 mu of newly developed area, 5000 mu of production area, 7000 tons of total output and 75 million yuan of output value. Bashan Crisp Plum industry has become the characteristic pillar industry of Tongchuan District.
2. The standardized production technology has been significantly improved In the production of Crisp Plum, we adopted "going out and bringing in", and vigorously promoted the Matching Cultivation Techniques of improving quality and efficiency, such as formula fertilization, plastic film covering, green prevention and control. In 2013, a total of 10000 mu green Bashan Crisp Plum bases, 2 high-quality Bashan Crisp Plum demonstration bases, 5 high-quality thousand mu Bashan Crisp Plum production base villages and 8000 mu ecological orchards have been built in the whole region.
3. Brand awareness has been significantly enhanced Through the promotion strategy of "Sichuan Dazhong crisp" and "Chongqing Dazhong crispy" and "Chongqing Dazhong crispy" and "Chongqing Dazhong crispy" have been promoted, the quality of products has been improved significantly The market development prospect is very considerable.
4. Driving the vigorous development of related industries, Bashan Crisp Plum area accounted for more than 15% of the artificial afforestation area in Tongchuan District in 2013, and the industrial development led to the development of agricultural leisure and tourism industry in the district.
5. Stepping into the track of agricultural industrialization, 6 professional cooperatives such as "Tian's Bashan Crisp Plum professional cooperative" have emerged in the whole region (enterprise) + base + peasant household "industrialization management mode has formed the integration of production, supply and marketing. The annual sales of Bashan Crisp Plum production materials are more than 80 tons, and the annual external sales of Bashan Crisp Plum Fruit products reach more than 3000 tons, which drives the development of local labor, transportation and commodity wholesale and other related industries.
3、 There are problems
1. The change of climate and environment will affect the quality and benefit of products According to the investigation, the low temperature tolerance limit of Bashan Crisp Plum Flower is about 6 ℃, while the local low temperature below 5 ℃ often occurs in the middle and late March, which causes the flowers in some fruit areas to be seriously frozen; from the middle of June to the last ten days of August, the high temperature weather above 35 ℃ has extended from 20-25 days in the past to 35-45 days, which is very easy to cause young fruit burning; from June to September, hail often occurs, and it is easy to cause fruit dropping and cracking.
2. The market order of agricultural materials is disordered, and the quality and safety of products are not optimistic. There is no unified production technical regulation for Bashan Crisp Plum production. The production and pest control are conducted by individual households, and the phenomenon of abuse of pesticides and indiscriminate application of chemical fertilizers by fruit growers occurs from time to time. In addition, there is still a certain gap between the requirements of production of pollution-free and green fruits.
3. There are many varieties and the quality of Bashan Crisp Plum is uneven. In recent years, Bashan Crisp Plum has developed rapidly (www.novmv. Com). However, the phenomenon of random introduction and seedling mixing often occurs, and some even use the foreign plum (plum Series) eliminated many years ago to impersonate Bashan crisp plum, resulting in uneven varieties.
4. The industry lacks long-term planning and unreasonable layout. Although Bashan Crisp Plum has strong adaptability and wide range of planting, it is not a "universal" crop. But in some places, this variety plant In the cold rotten field and barren land in shady slope groove, slow seedling and dead seedling are serious after planting. Some orchards were not selected properly, and the varieties were not arranged according to the "early, middle and late" varieties.
5. Some areas are faced with the problems of aging plum trees and shrinking economic benefits. Tongchuan District is a traditional Bashan Crisp Plum industrial area. The brittle plum planted in the 1980s and 1990s has obviously weakened the tree vigor and entered the aging period due to the aging of trees, failing to keep up with the management and aggravating diseases and insect pests.
6. The service system lags behind, the quality of fruit growers is low, the technical personnel of fruit trees are few and the strength is weak, which is not suitable for the development of Bashan Crisp Plum industry. Although agricultural technology service stations have been set up in villages and towns, there are no professional fruit production technicians. The technical service system is generally lagging behind, especially in the remote Bashan Crisp Plum production area. Compared with developed areas, the low level of fruit farmers' technology, extensive management of orchards and low degree of standardization of orchards have seriously restricted the sustainable development of Bashan Crisp Plum industry.
7. The infrastructure construction is lagging behind and the base is fragile. Before 2005, Bashan Crisp Plum was still a small miscellaneous fruit. About 95% of the plum trees were planted in front of and behind the houses of farmers. There was no infrastructure construction such as Yuandi Road, canal and Taiping, and the industry was in "original ecology". After 2006, although the industry has achieved rapid development, the investment in infrastructure construction is small, which can not keep up with the demand of industrial development. The plum orchard is not standard, the roads between the parks are not smooth, and the drought can not guarantee irrigation. The harvest of products is still shouldered by fruit farmers. From a long-term view of "trees in a patch" and a close look at "garden disorder", the basic characteristic industry of "one industry and one park" has not been formed.
8. The leading enterprises did not really play a role. The leading enterprises' driving ability was not strong, and there was no unified regulation, unified technology and unified price in the production; 80% of Bashan crisp plum varieties were medium mature varieties, with centralized listing time and fierce price competition, which seriously affected the income of fruit farmers.
4、 Development strategy
1. Strengthen leadership and increase capital investment. First, the district government should set up a leading group for Bashan Crisp Plum development to guide and coordinate Bashan Crisp Plum industry. Second, the project integration, the comprehensive agricultural development, poverty alleviation and development, work relief projects and other agricultural support funds are bundled and used, and the Bashan Crisp Plum industry is inclined to enhance the industrial base's bearing capacity. Third, increase investment. The district level finance should arrange certain funds to support the characteristic Bashan Crisp Plum industry, and support the construction of industrial bases, professional cooperatives, large industrial households and market brand publicity.
2. Optimize the layout, control the development scale to the whole region, focus on the "one ring, two belts and three pieces" new rural construction area, implement centralized and continuous development, and ensure that Bashan Crisp Plum will develop to 20000 mu in 2017, with an average yield of 2000 kg per mu and a total yield of 40 million kg. According to the market price of 5 yuan / kg, the output value will reach 200 million yuan and the income of fruit farmers will be increased by two times.
3. Strengthen the standard construction, improve the management level, take the specialized village as the foundation, drive the development of the neighboring villages and communities, and implement scientific planning and scale plant Standard management, market-oriented, brand building and professional development. It is necessary to take pollution-free production as the goal, work hard to improve product quality and efficiency, vigorously promote new fruit planting technology, implement standardized garden construction and production, and constantly improve the level of orchard comprehensive management.
4. Pay close attention to the promotion of science and technology and improve the technical level. Based on the construction of three Bashan Crisp Plum industry demonstration zones, such as Huanfeng Road, Huancheng Road and Bandeng mountain, vigorously introduce technical talents and continuously improve the scientific and technological level of fruit professional team. At the same time, combined with the implementation of labor transfer sunshine project and science and technology into the household project, vigorously carry out the training of fruit farmers in science and technology, and improve the overall quality of fruit farmers.
5. To strengthen the security construction and improve the service system, it is necessary to establish the accumulation fund for the development of Bashan Crisp Plum industry in the districts and towns, and improve the fruit tree technical service system of Bashan Crisp Plum professional township (town) and village. At the same time, we set up a new technology research institute to solve the problem of new technology.
6. Pay close attention to the safety of agricultural products and improve the quality of fruits In accordance with the requirements of "green safety, ecological nutrition and high efficiency", we should strengthen the supervision of production inputs such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers, and actively implement the market access system of agricultural materials. In Bashan Crisp Plum base area, we should strengthen the monitoring and inspection of the production environment and fruit quality, strengthen the enforcement of agricultural funds, ensure the quality and safety of fruits, and put an end to the occurrence of planting and harmful incidents.
7. Strengthen disaster prevention and resistance, improve the ability of defense, strengthen the scale of disaster prevention and mitigation system construction, actively explore new measures such as agricultural insurance, improve the ability of natural disaster prevention and effectively protect the interests of fruit farmers.
8. Pay close attention to the brand construction, improve the brand image, uniformly register and use the brand trademark of Bashan Crisp Plum, intensify the brand publicity, standardize the packaging market, vigorously promote the trademark use method and market traceability system of pasting the trademark first and then packing in the production area, maintain the brand image and strive to create a brand with a brand name.
9. Strengthen investment promotion, extend the industrial chain, encourage people from all walks of life to participate in the development of Bashan Crisp Plum industry, especially to explore the deep processing and cold storage technology development of Bashan Crisp Plum, so as to increase the added value of products through processing and storage conversion, and take the road of industrialization development.
10. Support the leading enterprises and strengthen the market construction. First, support the supporting policies of enterprises, implement listing protection for such enterprises, and reduce the burden of leading enterprises as much as possible; second, increase financial support to let enterprises use for Bashan Crisp Plum base construction and project start-up. At the same time, we should strengthen the construction of Bashan Crisp Plum Market, strictly prohibit the appearance of problems that damage the brand image of Bashan Crisp Plum, strengthen the docking and development of Bashan Crisp Plum sales market, increase the guidance and driving role of farmers' income, and gradually form the network system of agricultural products wholesale market.
(contact address: Chaguo station, Tongchuan District, Dazhou City, Sichuan Province, postcode: 635000)