The methods of apple flower and fruit thinning, etc
Apple flower and fruit thinning is an important link in fruit production, especially Hanfu Apple has strong continuous fruit bearing ability, more flowering and high fruit setting rate. Therefore, reasonable flower thinning and fruit thinning should be carried out according to the tree age, management level and quality requirements.
1. Flower and fruit thinning methods. ① The method of determining fruit by flower. As soon as possible, flower and fruit thinning can save nutrition consumption of tree body and improve fruit setting rate and disease resistance. According to the spacing, the thin and weak inflorescences which are too many and too dense should be removed, and the robust inflorescences with a certain spacing should be reserved; further, only one central bud and one lateral bud, or two intact side buds, can be reserved for the remaining robust inflorescences, and other flower buds can be removed. Specific methods: the inflorescence separation period combined with pre flower cutting, according to the tree situation and variety characteristics, leave 1 inflorescence every 20-25 cm, and remove all excess inflorescences. When thinning flowers, first up and then down, first inside and then outside, first remove weak branch flower, axillary flower and top flower, leave more short branch flower. Then remove the side flowers of each inflorescence, leaving only the central flower.
② Spacing method. Fruit thinning starts from 10 days after withering, and is usually completed within 20 days. It can improve the quality of fruit in the current year, promote flower bud differentiation and strengthen tree vigor. Generally, fruit thinning in Donggang area will be finished before June 10. Fruit thinning should be based on tree potential, fruiting branch length and leaf number to flexibly control the amount of fruit, generally every 20-25 cm to leave a fruit platform, each set only leave a central fruit. The weak branch of the weak tree leaves a fruit every 25 cm, and the rest is completely sparse. The second thinning was carried out when the fruit grew to the size of soybean grain. 1-2 fruits were left in each inflorescence, and the small fruit, pest fruit and abnormal fruit were removed. The third time to determine the fruit, in the apple grow to the Hawthorn size of the hour, this time to leave a single fruit. After fruit thinning, spray a layer of bactericide to cover the bag.
2. Precautions. ① The operation should be accurate and meticulous. It should be carried out from top to bottom and from inside to outside. The surrounding branches and leaves should be protected from damage.
② Flower and fruit thinning should be carried out according to weather conditions. If frost occurs after thinning flowers and fruits, fruit setting will be significantly reduced, affecting the yield.
③ In the case of insufficient pollination trees and lack of pollen, thinning should be the main method (www.novmv. Com) and 10% - 15% more than the amount needed.
④ Pollination trees do not loose flowers, less fruit after flowering.
Key points of walnut bud grafting Li Xihong
Walnut bud grafting is one of the main methods of breeding high-quality walnut seedlings, but the survival rate of shoots is very low because of the bleeding easily occurred during grafting. Through several years of experiments, we have transformed the small trees that have been planted with no fruit or little fruit, and the seedlings after grafting have strong adaptability, early bearing, fruit yield and quality also improved. The specific technology is as follows:
1. Rootstock cultivation. The rootstock for budding can be peach stone, wild walnut, etc. in autumn, fully mature seeds with full grains are collected from the mother tree, and the seedlings of Rootstocks are cultivated by sowing in the autumn of the same year or in the spring of the following year. Before sowing, sufficient base fertilizer should be applied. After deep ploughing and leveling the soil, the furrow and drilling sowing should be carried out immediately. The appropriate spacing between plants and rows should be 25 × 60 cm. After emergence, the soil should be loosened for weeding, sprouting tillers should be removed, and diseases and insect pests should be controlled.
2. Scion collection. 2.5 cm of the full-fledged branches should be covered with wet sand cloth.
3. Grafting time. Walnut bud grafting is suitable from early June to early July, and the earlier the better. Check whether the rootstock and scion meet the grafting requirements before grafting.
4. Budding method. Walnut bud grafting with square peeling and sticking bud is the best, and the survival rate is higher. The method is as follows: take the selected scion in the left hand and the bud grafting knife in the right hand. First, cut 1 knife at 1 cm above the grafting bud, and then cut 1 knife at 1 cm on both sides of the grafting bud. Grasp the base of the petiole with fingers and gently twist the square bud piece, or gently lift it with the bone of grafting knife, so that the bud can be taken out, 10-25 cm above the rootstock root Cut the smooth and scarless part quickly into square incision, the size of the incision is the same as that of the bud. After the bud is taken, it is tightly bound. After grafting, the robust branch is selected and cultivated into excellent and robust seedlings.
5. Post management. About 10 days after grafting, check once. If the petioles of grafted buds can be touched down by hand and the buds are bright green, they are expected to survive and should be untied as soon as possible. No irrigation was allowed within 15 days after grafting, and fertilization was conducted once or twice according to the situation. Watering, loosening soil, cultivation, weeding, pest control, water cut off at the end of August.