Where is kiwi fruit suitable plant Kiwifruit is suitable plant And Planting technology
The appearance of kiwi fruit is not good-looking, just like a brown hair ball. It is this kind of unsightly fruit that has been found and eaten since ancient times. It can be seen that its edible value is far higher than its appearance. So to understand specifically: kiwi fruit suitable for where plant The suitable planting conditions of kiwifruit and Planting technology 。
Where is Kiwi suitable for planting
According to the local conditions and the selected kiwifruit varieties, it is suggested to understand the suitable environment of the varieties first, and then introduce them in small areas.
The wild branches are mainly distributed in Shaanxi, Gansu and Henan in the north, Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian in the south, Guizhou, Yunnan and Sichuan in the southwest, and provinces in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, especially in the Yangtze River Basin.
Most species of kiwifruit require warm and humid climate, namely subtropical or temperate humid and semi humid climate, mainly distributed in the vast area of 18-34 degrees north latitude. The annual average temperature is about 11.3-16.9 ℃, the extreme maximum temperature is 42.6 ℃, the extreme minimum air temperature is about - 20.3 ℃, the effective accumulated temperature above 10 ℃ is 4500-5200 ℃, and the frost free period is 160-270 days.
For example, the annual average temperature of Actinidia chinensis grows well between 4 ℃ and 20 ℃, while that of Actinidia deliciosa ranges from 13 ℃ to 18 ℃. The growth and development stages of kiwifruit are also affected by temperature. Some studies have shown that when the temperature rises to about 10 ℃, the buds begin to sprout, when the temperature rises above 15 ℃, it can blossom, when it is above 20 ℃, it can bear fruit. When the temperature drops to about 12 ℃, it enters the dormant period of deciduous leaves. The whole development process takes about 210-240 days, during which the daily temperature can not be lower than 10-12 ℃.
Suitable planting conditions of Kiwifruit
-. Site selection
It is better to choose mountainous areas with convenient transportation, sufficient light, water source, moderate rainfall and humidity, loose and well ventilated sandy loam or sandy soil, or loose soil rich in humus for garden construction. After determining the site, the road, drainage and irrigation system and fertilizer management room should be planned first, and then the ventilation ditch of planting land should be planned.
Kiwi fruit planting The main erection methods are: T-shaped frame, fence frame, triangle frame, greenhouse frame, etc. Most of them adopt flat roof frame. The original small-diameter trees can be used as live piles, and some replaceable bamboo and wood dirt can be added. Concrete piles are used in key parts. The frame is 1.8 meters high on the spot, with 10-12 iron wires crossing vertically and horizontally, forming a "well" shaped network, and the wire spacing is about 60 cm.
The amount of fertilizer was determined according to kiwifruit varieties, planned yield and soil fertility. Before planting, 2.5kg fruit tree fertilizer can be applied to each tree in the pit, and a small amount of multiple fertilization method is adopted for young trees. After that, the fertilizer is usually applied three times a year, one time and two times of topdressing. The base fertilizer, i.e. winter fertilizer, was applied after fruit harvest, with 20 kg organic fertilizer per plant and 1.5 kg phosphate fertilizer mixed. The first topdressing was applied after germination, and 2kg NPK compound fertilizer was applied to each plant to enrich the spring shoots and bearing trees; the second application before the peak growth period could be applied with fruit tree fertilizer or compound fertilizer. As the root of kiwifruit is fleshy root, shallow ditch should be dug away from the root to apply chemical fertilizer and seal soil, so as to avoid root burning. Irrigation must be carried out after fertilization in dry season.
3、 Pruning and thinning
In order to achieve the goal of high yield and good quality, we should make full use of the scaffold surface to make the branches evenly distributed.
Before pruning, kiwifruit was divided into winter cutting, summer cutting and male pruning. Winter pruning was carried out from defoliation to one month before germination in early spring, with sparse cutting as the main method and short cutting as appropriate. Keep more main vines and fruiting mother branches, and cut the dense branches. Thin and weak branches, Cross branches and pest branches. Pruning and pruning are mainly carried out from mid July to early summer. The male plants were pruned after flowering from May to June. When the shoots were removed, 4-4 shoots were left.
Generally, fruit thinning should be carried out one month after flowering. Keep middle fruit, sparse edge fruit, 1 fruit per 4-5 leaves. 1-2 fruits per 20 cm of general branches and 5-6 fruits per 20-25 cm of weak branches. The yield per plant is 50kg and 500-600 fruits should be retained.
4、 Pest control
The main diseases of kiwifruit are anthracnose, root knot nematode, damping off, root rot, fruit soft rot, etc. Among them, anthracnose is harmful not only to stem and leaf, but also to fruit. Spraying 800 times carbendazim 2-3 times during germination can be used for control. The management of fertilizer and water should be strengthened, and the control of Meloidogyne methyl or 30% carbofuran should be used.
The main pests of kiwifruit are scutellus mori, Cercospora Penaeus, ground tiger, scarab, leafhopper, fruit sucking noctuid, etc. The overwintering insects of scale insects were controlled with Omethoate or quick killing solution of 1500-2000 times, and the underground pests were mixed with fried bran and carbofuran in the ratio of 10:1 and sprayed on the ground. In late April, insecticides should be used in the first ten days or the last ten days of the month. Leafhoppers were treated with 50% phoxim EC or 1000 times of fenitrothion. Fruit sucking Spodoptera exigua occurs in September when the sugar content of fruit begins to increase. It comes out at night and damages the fruit, causing fruit drop or forming hard block. It can be trapped and killed by bagging, black light lamp or sugar and vinegar solution (1:1), or spray once every 10-15 days with miesuli or Baode 3000 times, starting from late August until the end of harvest.
After picking fruits, clean the orchard, cut off the branches of diseases and insect pests and dead branches, and burn them intensively to reduce the source of disease and insect infection.
5、 Harvest in proper time
The storage life and quality of kiwifruit are greatly affected by the maturity at harvest. Early or late harvest of kiwifruit will affect the quality and flavor of kiwifruit, and it must pass through the quality formation period to fully mature.
According to the fruit development stage, when the soluble solid content of fruit is 6% - 7%, the suitable harvest time is 7% - 10% for the fruit that needs long-term storage. Early harvest, bad flavor. Harvesting should be carried out on a windless sunny day. It is not suitable to harvest in rainy days, after rain and in the morning when the dew is not dry. The best picking time was when the temperature did not rise before 10 am. When harvesting, it is necessary to pick and place it with care, and to avoid bumping and piling up. It is better to pack and put into storage according to the classification. The bottom of containers such as boxes and baskets used to hold peaches should be padded with soft materials, which should be picked and put down lightly. It is not allowed to stretch the fruit base or scratch the peel. The fruit is hard and astringent after initial harvest. It can be eaten after 7-10 days of ripening and softening. The ripening fruits should not be stored and should be sold in time.
Kiwifruit Planting method
1. Cuttings. The results showed that the dormant branches were thin and took root earlier after cutting, and the thick dormant branches took root later. However, it is difficult to grow strong seedlings by using too thin branches as cuttings. Therefore, branches with a diameter of 8-10 mm should be selected as cuttings.
2. Cutting. Kiwifruit trees are usually pruned from January to mid February. The cuttings can be cut with the pruned branches. If the cuttings are collected earlier and the transplanting date is later, the cuttings can be coated with protective agent, and then stored in plastic film, or stored at 5 ℃ or in cold open place. No matter which method is adopted, the cuttings should be strictly prevented from dehydration and withering. The cutting date should not be later than April. Cutting bed soil should choose clean fine sand soil or sandy soil.
Fertilization principles of Kiwifruit
The amount of fertilizer was determined according to kiwifruit varieties, planned yield and soil fertility. Before planting, 2.5kg fruit tree fertilizer can be applied to each tree in the pit, and a small amount of multiple fertilization method is adopted for young trees. After that, the fertilizer is usually applied three times a year, one time and two times of topdressing. The base fertilizer, i.e. winter fertilizer, was applied after fruit harvest, with 20 kg organic fertilizer per plant and 1.5 kg phosphate fertilizer mixed. The first topdressing was applied after germination, and 2kg NPK compound fertilizer was applied to each plant to enrich the spring shoots and fruiting trees. The second topdressing was applied before the peak growth period. As the root of kiwifruit is fleshy root, shallow ditch should be dug away from the root to apply chemical fertilizer and seal soil, so as to avoid root burning. Irrigation must be carried out after fertilization in dry season.
Water management of Kiwifruit
1. During the irrigation period, the growth of kiwifruit can be satisfied by irrigating 4 ~ 5 times in normal water year in northern China. The first time was winter irrigation, the second was before germination, the third was before or after flowering, and the fourth was in the period of young fruit expansion. In dry years, the orchard should be flexibly controlled according to the soil moisture, and timely irrigation should be carried out to keep the ground moist. Irrigation method and irrigation amount
2. At present, the production of furrow irrigation is mainly flood irrigation and furrow irrigation, and sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation are used in areas where conditions permit. Flood irrigation and furrow irrigation are to build canals and furrows in orchards and irrigate trees or rows with large water. Spray irrigation should be used in high temperature and arid areas. Sprinkler irrigation not only changes the microclimate in the garden, but also improves the air humidity in the garden, saving water and labor. Drip irrigation can keep the soil moist and meet the water requirement of kiwifruit growth. At the same time, drip irrigation can be used with water-soluble fertilizer, saving fertilizer and water, and reducing soil hardening.
3. Kiwifruit is neither drought resistant nor waterlogging tolerant. Therefore, the principle of small amount and multiple irrigation should be adopted. The amount of irrigation should be in the soil layer with the most root distribution, and the relative soil water content should be maintained at 75% ~ 85% of the maximum field water holding capacity. (3) drainage is mainly carried out in areas with high water level or heavy clay soil. If the water level is high or the drainage is not smooth, drainage channels should be designed. The water in kiwi fruit garden should be drained away in time. Too much water will lead to rotten roots and the trees will gradually turn yellow and die.