Control technology of Tricholoma edodes
Tricholoma matsutake is produced in Bashang area of Zhangjiakou. It is the first time to find and domesticate the famous Tricholoma species in Bashang grassland in China. Tricholoma matsutake is famous at home and abroad for its rich flavor, delicious taste, plump mushroom meat, rich nutrition and unique flavor. It is known as "the Pearl of grassland and the king of mushrooms".
However, in the living conditions and ecological environment of the growth and development of Tricholoma edodes, the culture medium is rich in nutrients, the cultivation space is relatively closed, dark, humid, and the temperature is suitable, which can easily cause diseases, pests and mites, and bring different degrees of damage to the yield and quality of Tricholoma. Therefore, taking scientific and reasonable pest control methods is an important guarantee to obtain high yield, high quality and high efficiency. The control methods of common diseases and insect pests in Tricholoma production are introduced as follows.
In the cultivation of Tricholoma edodes, the common and common diseases are crystalloid, Trichosanthes, black sweat and dung. The results showed that the growth of Tricholoma was faster than that of Tricholoma odoratum. The water and nutrients in the culture materials were invaded and the yield of Tricholoma was reduced. It is difficult to distinguish the mycelium from Tricholoma matsutake before the fruiting body is exposed. In order to avoid the occurrence of Paragonimus, the raw materials should be fresh and the fermentation should not be complete, and the nitrogen content in the culture medium should be too high. Therefore, the culture materials should be fresh to avoid the introduction of miscellaneous bacteria. The carbon nitrogen ratio of the culture material should be reasonable, and the water content in the material should be appropriate. Once the mushroom bed occurs, it should be removed in time before opening the umbrella, so as to avoid the spread of basidiospores.
Chloromycete is one of the main hazards in the production of Tricholoma edodes. It occurs in 2-7 days after inoculation. It mainly shows that the mycelium does not germinate and the wheat grains turn green after sowing. The reason is that the air humidity is high and the temperature is high. Its prevention and control methods are: strengthen ventilation, cooling, reduce humidity, serious need to turn over the green part of the inoculation layer, re sowing, also known as replanting.
3 dead mushrooms
In the mushroom house, the mushroom bud withers, turns yellow and finally dies, sometimes in batches. The causes are as follows: when the fruiting body is only sesame or soybean, if the mushroom room encounters the high temperature above 23 ℃ for a long time, the fruiting body will die in batches; when the cold air comes, a large amount of water is used in the mushroom bed to increase the temperature difference between the culture material and the covering soil layer, thus reducing the metabolic capacity of the fruiting body, resulting in the death of the fruiting body; when picking, the surrounding small mushrooms are accidentally damaged, resulting in local dead mushrooms 。 Prevention and control methods: ① according to the climatic characteristics, reasonably arrange the sowing season to avoid the sudden high temperature when the high temperature comes out, stop using water on the bed surface and ventilate at night; (ww.nczfj.com) ② never use a lot of water after the cold air comes; ③ when picking mushrooms, hold the mushroom cover by hand and rotate it again to avoid lifting the surrounding soil.
4. Open umbrella early with thin skin
Thin skin and early umbrella opening is the phenomenon of fruit body with thin stalk and thin cover. This kind of mushroom is of poor quality. Causes: raw material, thin layer of material, over dry, thin covering soil, insufficient water content; high density, high temperature, rapid growth of fruiting body, early maturity and dry bed surface. Prevention and control methods: ① the culture material should be moderately decomposed, the spreading material should not be too thin, and the covering soil should not be too thin and too dry; ② it should be prevented that the mushroom is too dense and does not spray the tide water; ③ in the mushroom peak period, the mushroom room should be ventilated in the morning and evening or at night, reduce the temperature in the room, appropriately increase the surface moisture of the covering soil, and improve the air humidity in the mushroom room.
5 water rust
Rust spots appear on the mushroom cover. Causes: after the fruiting bodies of Tricholoma edodes are unearthed, the bed surface is not ventilated in time, the air humidity in the mushroom room is too high, and there is often water on the surface of the mushroom body; during the fruiting period, the air is humid and stuffy, and the temperature of the mushroom room is higher than 18 ℃. Prevention and control method: pay attention to the ventilation of the mushroom room after spraying water during the mushroom emergence period, and close the doors and windows after the water droplets on the surface of the mushroom body evaporate.
This insect is the main pest of Tricholoma edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. After the fruiting bodies were unearthed, the larvae concentrated on the mushroom roots or spread to the whole mushroom body, making the mushroom body light red. The pest not only affected the yield, but also affected the quality. Prevention and control methods: ① do a good job in environmental sanitation, timely burn or deep bury the residual mushroom carcass; ② install the window screen at the ventilation hole of the mushroom room to prevent the invasion of ten thousand insects; ③ chemical control. Hang cotton balls or cloth strips with dichlorvos solution on the air vent and mushroom bed to expel the adults; 4) light trapping. An iron basin containing dichlorvos solution under an electric lamp is used to lure and kill the adults.
Mites belong to arachnoidea of Arthropoda. The larvae of mites can eat Tricholoma edodes mycelium at the beginning, which is the most harmful, which reduces the yield and quality of Tricholoma edodes. Damage characteristics: feeding on mycelium, when serious, can eat up the mycelium and young fruiting body. Prevention and control methods: ① do a good job in environmental sanitation, bacteria culture room and edible fungus cultivation field should be clean and clean, and eliminate the pollution of miscellaneous bacteria; ② timely dispose of waste bacteria bottles, retting or deep burying waste materials in time to eliminate mite breeding places; ③ sugar water trapping: add dichlorvos into sugar water and soil, put them on plastic film near mushroom bed, in order to lure mites to come and eat sugar.
In a word, Tricholoma edodes is a kind of grass rot fungus. The so-called diseases are mainly caused by miscellaneous bacteria, and the main pests are mushroom flies and mites. In the production, we should carry out the policy of "prevention first, comprehensive control", scientific management and rational drug use, so that the production of Tricholoma edodes is not only high-yield, efficient, but also high-quality and pollution-free.