Cultivation techniques of Dictyophora indusiata [nongguang Tiandi]
Cultivation techniques of Dictyophora indusiata [nongguang Tiandi] video from CCTV nongguang Tiandi
[nongguangtiandi] cultivation techniques of Dictyophora indusiata (20130207)
Dictyophora, also known as bamboo fungus, bamboo fungus, bamboo ginseng and immortal bamboo hat, is a kind of cryptorchidism fungus parasitic on the root of withered bamboo. Dictyophora is rich in nutrition, rich in fragrance and delicious in taste. It has been listed as one of the "eight treasures of grass" since ancient times. In this program, we introduce the biological characteristics of Dictyophora, the preparation of Dictyophora species, the sowing, field management, harvesting and primary processing of Dictyophora. We hope that in the process of cultivation, we can give a wide range of information plant Family friends bring help.
After years of practice, scientific and technological personnel have developed a set of new field cultivation techniques for Dictyophora indusiata. The average yield (dry product) per mu increased from 45 kg to 100-170 kg, which greatly stimulated farmers plant The enthusiasm of Dictyophora has become an important industry for farmers to become rich. Every year, it radiates and drives the surrounding cities and counties as well as Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Sichuan provinces plant More than 40000 mu.
The high-yield cultivation of Dictyophora indusiata should have one premise: the soil is loose and fertile, not suitable for continuous cultivation; two conditions are as follows: pile fermentation, mulching film border soil wetting; three in place: 550-600 bags of bacteria per mu (667 square meters of 1 mu, the same below), 0.5 kg per bag, 15-16 cubic meters of culture materials, about 7200kg of culture materials, and 0.7% of the cultivation materials.
1. Life habit of Dictyophora indusiata
1.1 nutritive Dictyophora is a nitrogen loving bacterium. Nitrogen is the necessary raw material for the synthesis of protein and nucleic acid by Dictyophora indusiata. In general, the nitrogen source in bamboo powder and sawdust is insufficient. When building pile fermentation, urea is added to the culture material and urea is applied to the cultivated land to increase the nutrient in the cultivated land, so as to promote the vigorous growth of the mycelium and increase the yield.
1.2 Dictyophora oxyphylla is an aerobic fungus. The soil is fertile and loose. When planting, the soil should be covered lightly to ensure the air permeability of the culture material, so as to facilitate the mycelial growth.
1.3 temperature Dictyophora indusiata is a kind of medium and high temperature fungus. It likes wet and humid environment. The growth temperature of mycelium is 5-32 ℃, the optimum temperature is 23 ℃; the temperature of fruiting body formation is 20-30 ℃, and the optimum temperature is 25 ℃. Therefore, it is necessary to build sunshade or interplanting crops to keep the covering soil and ditch soil moist.
1.4 pH value of Dictyophora indusiata has been growing and reproducing in humic layer and slightly acid soil for a long time, forming a suitable environment for growth in slightly acidic environment. Therefore, the pH value of culture material and covering soil of Dictyophora should be between 5 and 6.5. When the pH value is higher than 7, the growth of Dictyophora is hindered.
2. Site and strain selection
2.1 the field with convenient transportation, fertile soil and drought and waterlogging prevention should be selected. The bamboo, sawdust, reed and other materials needed for the cultivation of Dictyophora indusiata are large and heavy. The transportation cost can be saved by choosing the field with convenient transportation. Thick soil layer, high humus content, loose and breathable, good water retention performance. The field should be irrigated by drought and drained by waterlogging, so as to keep the covering soil and gully soil moist. Dictyophora cultivation It is not suitable for continuous cropping, and should be transferred from low to high fields to avoid cross infection of pathogens and reduce yield. The planting interval must be more than 4 years, and the upper part of the field and the surrounding non planting field are better. The dry land, which planted sweet potato and other fertilizer loving crops last year, and the field mainly composed of fine sand with poor water holding capacity and easy to suffer from drought, is not suitable for planting due to lack of fertilizer and many insect pests.
At the same time, bamboo and fruit can also be intercropped. Choose the flat terrain, horseshoe shaped mountain nest area, loose and fertile soil, organic matter content, soft texture, suitable forest land below 25 degrees, the density is moderate (130-180 trees per mu), 8-12 years old or thinning after two years, water holding and moisture preservation conditions are good.
2.2 when choosing to buy strains, the mycelium grew orderly, robust and powerful, and the mycelium age was 65-75 days. The one with hard handle was better, and the one with yellow water drops was older. When purchasing seeds, we should see whether the certificate of the strain merchant is complete, and ask for the purchase certificate.
Culture medium fermentation technology
The cultivation of Dictyophora in the field should be as follows: 1) the amount of fertilizer should be in place, 50 kg urea and 10 kg compound fertilizer should be used per mu. ② The amount of culture material per mu is 15-16 cubic meters, about 7200kg. ③ The amount of bacteria used was 550-600 bags per mu, 0.5 kg per bag.
3.1 the raw materials for preparation include bamboo chips, sawdust, crop straw, etc. The time is arranged from October to December every year. The culture material should be fresh. The fermentation temperature of fresh material should be fast. The fermentation temperature of blackened and rotten material is low, which will affect the yield. Early purchased culture materials should be properly kept to prevent high temperature and rain natural fermentation and burning materials, reduce the nutrients in the culture materials. Material preparation amount per mu: bamboo chips 14 m3, wood chips 2 m3, urea 25 kg, compound fertilizer 10 kg, light calcium carbonate 25 kg.
3. The compost of Dictyophora indusiata can be easily digested by fermentation. The purpose of fermentation, on the one hand, is to increase the nitrogen content of the culture material, make the culture material soft and rotten, so as to facilitate the mycelium degradation and promote the growth. On the other hand, the high temperature produced in the fermentation process can kill the miscellaneous bacteria and pests in the culture medium, and destroy the alkaloids in the culture medium.
Pile building method: 45-60 days before planting, a layer of culture material with a thickness of about 30 cm was laid, urea, compound fertilizer and light calcium were sprinkled, and water was poured. Turning over the culture material, digging holes beside the pile, collecting and reusing the permeated water, laying a layer of culture material, urinating, rehydrating, light calcium, pouring water, and repeatedly make the material pile into a ladder shape, and then step on it when it is 1.3 meters high Less water should be used in the first few layers.
3.3 turn the pile once every 15-18 days, exchange the internal and external materials, and add water according to the dry and wet degree of the culture material to keep the moisture content of the culture material at about 60%, that is, knead by hand, and there is water in the finger joint without dropping. When the temperature is higher after 9 a.m. When turning the pile, the temperature in the material is 50-60 ℃, and the feet are scalded. Turn the pile evenly for three times. The fermentation time was determined according to the thickness of the material until it was brown and fragrant. The process of overturning is also the process of removing waste gas and replenishing oxygen.
4. Field planting
4.1 the rice straw in the field shall be arranged on the ridge around the field, and the rice piles shall be cut off by the grass chopper. 10 days before planting and every rainy day, 20 kg of urea and 50 kg of superphosphate shall be evenly applied per mu, or after fermentation of culture materials, 35 kg urea and 100 kg calcium superphosphate shall be evenly applied per mu, and then the soil shall be leveled with micro tiller, exposed to the sun for sterilization and weathered loose soil. The width of border bed is about 70 cm and the width of furrow is about 25 cm. The length of border and drainage ditch can be determined according to the field.
4.2 sowing and covering soil from February to March every year. When the temperature is stable above 5 ℃, it can be sown. After 90-110 days of sowing, mining can be carried out for 3-4 tides, and picking will be finished in late September.
Before sowing, pour the fermentation material into turtle back type bacteria bed, and check whether there is ammonia in the culture material. If so, cool the material for 2-4 days. Select the cool material on cloudy or rainy days. To prevent the nutrient in the culture material from being washed by heavy rain, it is better to sow while cooling. The dry material needs watering to keep the moisture content at about 60%. When the soil is less than 7 cm, the seeds should be covered with light soil and covered with soil. After covering with soil, the surface soil can be covered with straw. After 3-5 days, the straw becomes soft and hygroscopic, and then covered with plastic film. The temperature in early spring is low, and the film can keep moisture and keep warm, which is beneficial to the growth of mycelium. After mulching with plastic film, the frame can be erected on the column with a height of about 1.8 meters. The mushroom rack should be set up firmly to prevent being blown down by the wind. In early April, the reed should be cut for standby. After 10 days of sowing, the germination and feeding conditions of the strains should be inspected irregularly, especially the strains in the fermentation area. The normally growing strains are white fluffy. If the massive strains are found to be black and smelly, the reasons should be found out and replant should be carried out in time to ensure the survival rate of the strains and prevent rodents.
5. Infection management
5.1 during the growth process of ventilation and air exchange, the mycelium decomposes the culture material, absorbs oxygen and discharges carbon dioxide, uncovering the film irregularly for ventilation and ventilation, so as to make the air in the border bed fresh; otherwise, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the border bed is too high, affecting the normal growth of the hyphae, and then cover it after ventilation for 1 day.
5.2 to maintain humidity, Dictyophora indusiata is neither resistant to water nor drought. It is necessary to prevent the accumulation of water and oxygen in furrows in rainy days, suffocation and death of hyphae, and to prevent mycelial atrophy in sunny and dry weather. The inherent water content in the medium was sufficient for mycelial growth during the mycelial development period, but the water content in the soil covered by the substrate decreased in sunny days and film mulching. In order to keep the moisture content of substrate 60% and the water content of covering soil 25%, it is necessary to supplement water, so as to keep shallow water storage in clear furrow, but it should not be higher than the bottom of culture material to prevent mycelial suffocation and death. In rainy days, the water in the border and ditch should be drained to keep the soil covered and ditch soil moist. Combined with ventilation and ventilation, the film should be lifted to make the surface soil wet and then covered with plastic film.
5.3 the temperature of the bed should be adjusted by lifting and covering the film, and ventilation should be conducted at the same time to prevent bacteria burning. If the temperature is lower than 20 ℃, in addition to air permeability and heat preservation, it is also necessary to cover plastic film to prevent rain and heat preservation, so as to facilitate the growth of mycelium and remove miscellaneous mushrooms. In the growth stage of mycelium, it is not easy to turn over the straw or cover the soil, so as to avoid breaking the mycelium and damaging the mycelial cords and affecting the growth of Dictyophora indusiata.
6. Mushroom management
In the budding stage, it is necessary to protect the site from rain and moisture, especially when the two batches of mushroom buds and soybeans are big, the plastic film should be covered in time in case of heavy rainstorm to prevent the rain drops of sunshade from damaging the growth of mushroom buds. Soil moisture is generally controlled in the cover soil, ditch soil moisture, kneading soil can be sticky.
6.1 weeds need not be removed too early in the border bed. When the middle finger and small mushroom buds are found on the border surface or the temperature is stable at 27 ℃ and the mycelium climbs on the border surface, the Nongda herbicide can be used to weed according to the times of the instructions. It is not suitable to manually pull out weeds to prevent the loosening of the surface soil sealed by the hyphae and destroy the normal growth of the hyphae.
6.2 the mushroom shed should be covered with reeds (shading net) to achieve the shading effect of eight minutes of shade and two parts of sunshine, so as to facilitate the growth of Dictyophora. At the end of one tide harvest, topdressing and killing insects can be carried out. Urea, edible fungus amino acid and pollution-free insecticide can be used. Spray at 3:00 p.m., sparingly and frequently to prevent burning buds.
6.3 the main disease of disease and pest control is tobacco mildew, which mainly occurs on the surface soil of Dictyophora indusiata or on the rice straw on the border surface. It turns red in the morning and turns black gradually in the afternoon. It is a devastating disease, which makes the bed culture material moist and black, hinders the growth of mycelium, and the mushroom bud is waterlogged and moldy. Measures: the border grass should not be removed too early, drain the water in the ditch, reduce the thickness of the covering, ventilate and reduce the air humidity; carefully remove the straw and surface soil, and keep it away from the mushroom shed, cut off the border bed at both ends to prevent spreading; at the same time, use Difenoconazole solution to spray the affected parts once a day for 3 consecutive days [/]; or spray ammonium bicarbonate at the occurrence site and cover the film with soil for prevention and control. If a slug appears, it can be captured artificially in cloudy night.
6.4 after disaster management, if there is no mycelium in the covering soil 3 days after the flood, and the culture material turns black, rice, soybean or corn should be planted. If the base material is yellow and there is new mycelium growth on the soil, the rotten mushroom buds can be removed, the sand and gravel accumulated in the ditch and the sludge deposited on the border bed can be removed. The mixture of urea, edible fungus amino acid and insecticide can be used for topdressing to control insect pests; the plastic film should be covered every other day to keep the soil moist and promote the development of fungi; the reed and straw can be thickened to prevent drought.
7. Harvesting and baking
7.1 timely harvest. Due to the unstable temperature from May to June, it is early and late to pick mushrooms. After the rain, it is sunny and early to produce mushrooms. When the mushroom buds break, they will be harvested immediately. The mushroom body should be clean and complete. It should be harvested 2-3 times a day. The cover should be peeled off in time and transported back to the baking sieve to let it grow naturally.
7.2 the baking oven is sealed all around, and the top of the oven is equipped with a dehumidification window; the fan dynamic rate is 1.3 kW / h. In order to avoid Dictyophora indusiata adhering to the sieve surface when entering the oven, first spread the gauze on the sieve, and then divide the upper and lower layers according to the size of the mushrooms, arrange the large ones in the lower layer and the small ones in the upper layer, and arrange them on the large baking sieve in order to prevent them from being blown away by the wind during baking.
In order to keep the appearance of Dictyophora in order to keep it fresh and white, the second baking method is needed.
Dehumidification setting period: after the Dictyophora enters the curing barn, open the dehumidification window and heat it. The initial temperature can be higher. In the range of 60-68 ℃, the evaporated water vapor can be quickly removed to make it drain moisture and shape. If the exhaust is not good, the mushroom is easy to turn black and shrink. However, due to the different thermal performance of each curing barn, the temperature requirements are different, so we should pay attention to the appropriate temperature when we start to roast mushrooms.
When drying, close the oven for about 5 hours, and then let it dry. If not, use your hand to touch the dry humidity of Dictyophora. Take some out and put them into plastic bags. Tie the bags tightly to prevent moisture and discoloration. Store them in a cool and dry room for sale.