Efficacy of Agaricus blazei Murill
Agaricus blazei Murrill, also known as small pine mushroom, Brazil mushroom or Bella's mushroom, ABM mushroom, belongs to basidiomycetes, Agaricus mushroom (black umbrella) family mushroom (black umbrella) genus, native to Brazil and Peru. Agaricus blazei Murill has tender cap, crisp stalk, excellent taste, almond flavor, delicious taste and high edible value. Its medicinal value is also very high, especially it has a strong anti-tumor effect. It is a kind of health mushroom for both food and medicine. At present, Agaricus blazei Murill is mainly exported in the form of dry products, and the foreign mushrooms and salted mushrooms are sold in the domestic market. The following specific to understand: the efficacy of Agaricus blazei Murill, high-yield cultivation techniques.
Agaricus blazei Murill, also known as Brazil mushroom, is native to Brazil and Peru. It is tender in summer and crisp in autumn. It grows in a hot and humid environment.
Mushroom shed construction cover: should choose in the moisture, ventilation, no ants, convenient transportation, close to the water source to build mushroom shed. The cultivation area of each shed is 330m2, and the specification is 9.5m × 12m. Four cultivation stands are built, two in the middle, six in the middle and five in the side. Each set is 1.5m × 10m.
Preparation: each mushroom shed needs 1000 kg straw or sugarcane leaves, 3000 kg bagasse, 3000 kg cow dung, 500 kg sawdust, 80 kg urea, 100 kg calcium superphosphate, 50 kg calcium magnesium phosphate, 300 kg gypsum powder, 100 kg lime powder, more than 300 large and small bamboos, and about 70 kg iron wire.
Stacking: put a layer of grass cut into 40-60cm, sprinkle gypsum powder and urea on the grass, and then put a layer of feces. Sprinkle calcium superphosphate and calcium magnesium phosphorus on the feces, and then sprinkle bagasse. In this way, it will be 7 layers of grass and 6 layers of feces. After 4 days of fermentation, the compost was turned over to make the compost mix evenly and promote fermentation. The material could be moved into the bed 3 days after the composting.
Secondary fermentation: the material fed into the bed is subjected to secondary fermentation under the control of temperature in the shed. After heating to 60-62 ℃ for 20 hours, it is cooled to 48 ℃ to 45 ℃ for 6 days, and then cooled to 45 ℃ to 30 ℃. Trellis and seeding: after leveling, scarifying and adjusting the dry and wet conditions of the secondary fermentation culture materials, the wheat seeds can be sown layer by layer according to the method of multi sowing at the bottom layer and less sowing at the upper layer.
Management: strengthen the sealing of the mushroom shed and keep it dark for a long time after sowing. When the mycelium grows to the bottom in about 20 days, the soil should be covered with 4-4.5cm; during the growing period, the temperature should be kept at 18-25 ℃. The ventilation and ventilation should be strengthened to keep the air fresh in the shed and sufficient scattered sunlight should be injected into the shed.
Timely harvesting: the harvesting time of Agaricus blazei Murrill directly affects the yield and commercial value of mushroom, too early collection of mushroom affects the yield, and too late collection of mushroom affects the quality. When the fruiting body is about to leave but does not leave the stalk, it can be harvested.
Efficacy of Agaricus blazei Murrill
1. Agaricus blazei Murrill can enhance the immune function of human body, especially for patients after chemotherapy, drinking a cup of Agaricus powder every day is very good for improving immunity.
2. Agaricus blazei Murrill can promote the hematopoietic function of human bone marrow: through improving the inhibition of hemopoietic function of bone marrow by chemotherapy, the concentration of peripheral hemoglobin, the total number of platelets and white blood cells tend to normal value, at the same time, it has inhibitory effect on tumor cells, and long-term administration can strengthen the health and well-being.
3. Agaricus blazei Murrill has the effect of protecting liver and protecting liver. If vertical lines appear on fingers, it means that your liver has developed sub-health. In addition to smoking and drinking, drinking this is very good for eliminating vertical lines.
4. Agaricus blazei Murrill can inhibit the proliferation of leukemia cells. It is suitable for the treatment of childhood leukemia.
5. Chemotherapy period will often appear anorexia, can be through Agaricus blazei powder to conditioning, sour and sweet, containing digestive enzymes, can help appetizer
High yield cultivation techniques of Agaricus blazei
1、 Growth conditions of Agaricus blazei
1. Temperature. The temperature range of mycelium growth is 15-32 ℃, the optimum temperature range is 22-26 ℃, and the temperature range of fruiting is 16-33 ℃. It can be cultivated in spring and autumn and summer.
2. Moisture and humidity. The moisture content of the culture medium is in the range of 60% - 70%, and the air humidity is 75%.
3. Light. No light is needed during the growth of mycelium, and strong scattered light is needed for the formation and growth of mushroom bud.
4. Air. Agaricus blazei Murill is an aerophilic fungus, so we should pay attention to the permeability of culture material and covering soil.
5. PH. The pH value of mycelium growth was in the range of 3.5-8, the optimum pH value was 6.0-7.5, and the fruiting period was 6.0-7.0.
2、 Cultivation Techniques
（1） Bed culture technology of Agaricus blazei Murrill composting
1. The results showed that: (1) rice straw 70%, rice bran 10%, vegetable cake powder 11%, urea 1%, superphosphate 2%, gypsum 2%, lime 3%, calcium carbonate powder 1%; (2) rice straw 42%, bagasse 42%, dried cow dung powder 10%, wheat bran 3%, calcium superphosphate 1%, calcium carbonate powder 1%, lime 1%; (3) rice straw 40%, cotton husk 45%, dried cow dung powder 6%, wheat bran 6%, calcium superphosphate 1%, carbon Calcium acid 1%, lime 1%.
2. Build a heap for fermentation. Water or soak the rice straw first, absorb enough water, and then drain the excess water. When building a pile, first lay a layer of straw on the ground, then spread a layer of raw materials evenly, adjust the water content to 50% - 60%, and then build a pile of straw and raw materials. The pile is 1.5-1.6 meters wide and 1.5 meters high. Its length is unlimited and its top is Turtle shaped. After the material is piled up, it is covered with straw curtain. The first composting was carried out on the fifth day, the third day and the third day. The optimum humidity of fermentation material is that there is watermark and no dripping water between fingers, and pH value is 7-8.
3. Sowing. The cultivation of Agaricus blazei Murrill can be built indoor or outdoor with bamboo and grass sunshade. Outdoor fields need to be prepared for border, with a width of 0.7-1.2 meters. Shake the culture material, lay the bed, and drop the temperature of the material below 30 ℃ to sow. (1) In the "deep hole", the hole is divided into two parts, one is deep, the other is about 20 cm deep. (2) Spread the culture material 10 cm thick, spread a layer of bacteria on the material surface, and then spread another layer of material to sow a layer of bacteria. The upper layer of bacteria occupies 3 / 5 of the amount of species. Generally, the seed amount is 1-2 bottles per square meter. After sowing, flatten and compact the material surface with a board, and cover it with a layer of newspaper or a layer of fresh dry straw.
4. Covering soil. 7-10 days after sowing, the fungus sprouted and covered with soil for a long time. Loam with grain diameter of 0.2-1.5cm was better, and the covering thickness was 3-5cm. After covering with soil, keep it moist and keep the site ventilated.
5. Mushroom management. (1) Adjust the temperature. The best temperature is 20-25 ℃. When the temperature is high, the ventilation should be strengthened and the covering should be thickened in the shade shed. (2) Control humidity. It is mainly to adjust the water content of the overburden layer, and do not spray too much water each time, so as to keep the soil layer moist. (3) Ventilation. Agaricus blazei Murrill needs sufficient oxygen during the period of mushroom emergence, which may cause deformity due to poor ventilation. Therefore, good ventilation conditions should be maintained. (4) Lighting management. It is necessary to scatter light during the period of fruiting. Too dark or strong light is unfavorable to its growth.
6. Harvest. The Agaricus blazei Murill should be harvested before breaking the membrane and opening the umbrella, that is, when the mushroom body is 5-8 cm long, and the lower end of the cap is not detached from the stipe. Remove the mud feet from the collected mushrooms.
（2） Bag planting technology of clinker
1. The formula of culture material: ① cottonseed hull 70%, rice bran 10%, wheat bran 5%, dried cow dung powder 10%, lime 2%, superphosphate 1%, urea 0.5%, calcium carbonate powder 1.5%; ② cottonseed hull 47%, rice straw 40% (20-30 cm long), rapeseed powder 5%, gypsum 1%, lime 2%; ③ mushroom residue 50%, rice straw 30%, wheat bran 5%, rice bran 5%, vegetable cake powder 7%, gypsum 1%, lime 2 ％。
2. Bagging. According to the formula, mix all kinds of raw materials with water, and build a long pile with the width of 1.5-1.6 meters and the height of 1.5 meters. (mushroom residue can not be piled, and can be added and mixed well when bagging). The moisture content of raw material is about 65%. The bags are packed with polyethylene tube with width of 23-24 cm, length of 40-44 cm and thickness of 0.02-0.025 cm. When bagging, the raw materials should be filled with appropriate tightness, and the two ends should be tied with fiber rope.
3. Sterilization. It is usually sterilized under normal pressure and kept at 100 ℃ for 10-12 hours.
4. Vaccination. Take out the sterilized bag and put it into the inoculation room. After it is cooled to below 30 ℃, it can be fumigated and sterilized with aerosol disinfection box. 2 grams per cubic meter of space, fumigation 3-6 hours can be inoculated. When inoculating, 2-3 people in a group, two people specially open and prick the mouth, and one person specially picks the bacteria on the surface of the bag mouth. Generally, 10-15 bags are planted in one bag.
5. The bacteria were cultured. The inoculated bag can be put into the room or greenhouse for cultivation, and the temperature should be controlled within 15-30 ℃. During the culture, the growth of the bag should be checked. If the mold contaminated bag is found, it should be removed in time.
6. Take off the bag and bury the soil. Choose outdoor field shade shed, soil preparation, border width of 1.2-1.5 meters. Take off the fungus bag, cut the mushroom into two sections, and put it in the border upright. The upper end of the mushroom material should be leveled to facilitate soil covering. The other management is the same as that of compost fermentation bed.