High yield cultivation techniques of Coprinus comatus
(Rural Economic Bureau of Kazuo County, Liaoning Province 122300)
Coprinus comatus is not only nutritious, tender and delicious, but also a kind of high protein, low fat and low heat energy health food. It can benefit the spleen and stomach, help digestion, increase appetite and reduce blood pressure. It is welcomed by consumers in urban and rural areas. In recent years, the cultivation of Coprinus comatus in Greenhouse in Kazuo County of Liaoning Province has developed on a certain scale, which has brought objective benefits to mushroom farmers. The cultivation techniques of Coprinus comatus are summarized as follows
Management before bagging inoculation
1.1 determination of production date: according to the characteristics of temperature and humidity tolerance of Coprinus comatus, it belongs to medium temperature and high temperature type fungus, and the specific time should be determined according to the combination of local climate conditions and production facilities. Those produced in solar greenhouses can be produced all year round.
1.2 selection of strain source: in the case that the producer does not have the production original seed, the method of expanding the production seed by purchasing the original seed or purchasing the production seed directly from the technical service unit should be adopted to solve the source of the strain. Whether self-produced strains or purchased strains should ensure the quality of strains.
1.3 selection and preparation of culture materials: according to the source of raw materials and clinker cultivation in western Liaoning, corncob and corn straw should be selected as the main raw materials. After drying the raw materials for Coprinus comatus cultivation, the seriously moldy parts were selected and removed. Corn stalks are cut into 5-8 cm straw segments, and corncobs are crushed into 5-7 mm diameter particles.
The formula is as follows: ① corn cob 870 / 0, bran 8%, NPK compound fertilizer 2%, lime 2%, gypsum powder 1%; ② wheat straw 80%, wheat bran 160, NPK compound fertilizer 2%, lime 2%, gypsum powder; ③ corn straw 80%, wheat bran 15%, NPK compound fertilizer 2%, gypsum 2%, quicklime 10%.
1.4 fermentation of culture materials: stack fermentation and bagged cultivation are easier and easier to operate, labor-saving and cost-effective than clinker cultivation. According to the formula proportion and processing requirements, the lime water with pH value of 13-15 should be mixed well. The degree of mixing water should be grasping the culture material by hand and extruding water drops between fingers. When piling up fermentation, the height and width of the pile should be 1 meter respectively. When stacking materials, a corn straw handle with a height of 1 m and a diameter of about 10 cm is erected every 50 cm to maintain the air permeability of the pile. Insert a number of thermometers into the pile with an interval of 1.5-2 meters, and then cover the two sides of the pile with plastic film for insulation. When the temperature in the pile reaches 60 ℃, keep it for 10-15 hours to fully and evenly turn over the pile. After mixing, place the straw handle again according to the first stacking method, insert the thermometer, cover the plastic film from both sides, and keep it for 10-15 hours when the temperature reaches about 60 ℃. If it is found that the fermentation degree is inconsistent, the pile can be turned over again according to the above method. In general, the fermentation requirements can be achieved by turning the pile twice. After fermentation, the cover is uncovered, the thermometer is put away, and the material pile is spread out to dry. Air to 65% of water content, pH value of about 8, then waiting for bagging inoculation.
1.5 bagging and inoculation: the special polyethylene plastic bag should be selected for the production of Coprinus comatus, and the spare strains should be cut into the size of jujube seed by hand or knife. While loading and sowing, first tie one end of the bag with rubber band as the bottom, sprinkle a layer of bacteria, then pack the bag, load it to 1 / 3, then put a layer of bacteria, and then continue to load to 2 / 3, and then sprinkle 1 layer of bacteria, which is about to be filled, sprinkle the last layer of bacteria, and then tie the bag mouth with rubber band. The amount of bacteria accounts for about 20% of the culture material, up to 25%. If the amount of bacteria is too large, the bacteria will be wasted, but the bacteria will germinate quickly, which can reduce the chance of miscellaneous bacteria infection.
2. Management of Mycelium Culture
According to the requirements of the environmental conditions, the sites, such as solar greenhouse, idle house and cold shed, should be arranged as long as they meet the needs of mycelium production. The temperature should be controlled at 24-28 ℃ and the air humidity should be controlled at 60%. When the temperature of the bacteria in the stack room is higher than that in the room temperature for 3-8 hours, it is better to keep the temperature at high temperature for 1-4 hours, It can be up to 5 storeys high. Turn the stack in time: after stacking the fungus bag, the stack should be turned once in 10 days in the early stage and once in the 5-7 days in the later period (turning the stack: changing from up to down, from down to up, from side to inside and from inside). The whole mycelial culture period takes about 30-40 days. The mycelium can be put into the bed to stimulate the mushroom after the bag culture material is full and even.
3.1 preparation of cultivation bed: in the greenhouse, indoor ground in the north-south direction of the bag bed, used to place the fungus bag, bed depth 25-30 cm, bed width 1 m, leaving 30-40 cm operation path between the beds.
3.2 bagging: after the bacteria bed is completed, the fungus bags full of mycelium are moved into the cultivation bed, and the bags are placed upright into the bed (www.novmv. Com). The spacing of the bacteria rods after bagging is 3 ~ 4cm. The prepared covering soil is filled in the gaps between the bacteria rods, and the soil is filled with enough soil after filling.
3.3 covering soil: generally, the soil without insect eggs, weeds, loose air permeability and no cultivation of edible fungi in recent years can be used, but sandy loam or loam with good air permeability, strong water storage capacity and soft soil is suitable. If the thickness is uneven, the coarse screen with the diameter of 1 cm shall be used for screening, and then disinfection shall be carried out. Generally, lime powder disinfection method shall be adopted, that is, lime powder with 2% of the total soil demand shall be mixed evenly, and the water content shall be controlled below 20%. The treated soil covering materials should be stacked and sealed for standby. While entering the bed, the placed mushroom sticks should be covered with soil of 3cm, scraped with a board and covered with plastic film for about 10 days. The temperature should be raised to keep moisture and promote the growth of mycelium. When a large number of hyphae grow in the covering soil layer, the plastic film is removed, and the mushroom production management stage is entered.
4. Mushroom management
When there are sporadic young mushrooms growing, the temperature should be controlled at 17 ~ 24 ℃. At this time, the temperature should be adjusted by increasing or decreasing straw curtains or shading materials combined with ventilation. Prevent dead mushroom caused by high temperature. It is suggested that the air humidity should be controlled to 85-90% during the fruiting period. If the ideal air humidity is not reached, the method of water spraying in the culture room should be adopted. In order to adapt to the aerobic characteristics of Coprinus comatus, the air should be regulated according to temperature and humidity. In cloudy, cold and cool weather, ventilate once or twice for 20-30 minutes each time. In sunny days with high room temperature, ventilation times should be increased and ventilation time should be prolonged.
5. Harvest management
Under normal conditions, the young mushroom can be harvested at any time after it is unearthed for about 7 days, and the fruiting body height reaches 6-7 cm, at least once or twice a day. If the difference between individuals is too large, it should be harvested in different times. After harvesting young mushrooms, the soil covering will be incomplete, which should be filled in time. Every time the mushroom is harvested, the bed should be cleaned, water and soil should be replenished, and the plastic film should be covered timely to promote the mycelial growth. Generally, every tide mushroom interval is 10 ~ 15 days. In the period of no mushroom on the bed surface, appropriate amount of lime water was sprayed to adjust the pH value, and 0.5-1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and other nutrient solutions were sprayed to supplement soil nutrients on the bed surface.