Dictyophora is also known as senzhu mushroom, bamboo Sheng, bamboo ginseng, bamboo fungus, etc. The bacteria are white, crisp, tender and refreshing. They taste delicious. They can be cooked together with other foods and have antiseptic effect.
Dictyophora mainly occurs in the humid and rich humus bamboo forests. The common types of bamboos are Phyllostachys pubescens, Pleioblastus amarus, Neosinocalamus affinis, Phyllostachys pubescens, Phyllostachys heterocycla, and Phyllostachys heterophylla. Dictyophora also occurs in Subtropical Broadleaf Mixed Forest, tropical rubber forest and banana garden. The occurrence time is from April to November every year, but June to September is the concentrated period. Dictyophora generally occurs within 2-3 days after rain. In one day, the spores were broken from 5 to 7 a.m., and the maximum opening was found at 9-10 a.m.
The body of Dictyophora is white, fragrant and nutritious. It is a world-famous precious edible and medicinal fungus, with the reputation of "Queen of fungi", "flower of fungi", "king of vegetable", etc. It is a high-grade export commodity of our country with high exchange rate. The purchase price per 0.5 kg in the domestic market used to be as high as 500-800 yuan. In recent years, due to the increase in production, the price has been greatly reduced. Dictyophora can also prevent spoilage, antisepsis and bacteriostasis. Dictyophora indusiata is not only beautiful in shape, but also rich in nutrition. According to the determination, in 100 grams of dry products, it contains 15-22.2 grams of crude protein, 2.0-3.8 grams of crude fat, 17.9-29.1 grams of sugar, 7.8-15.3 grams of crude fiber, and 6.3-7.75 grams of ash.
Dictyophora contains 11 kinds of mineral elements and 17 kinds of amino acids, among which 8 kinds of amino acids are essential to human body. In addition, Dictyophora also contains a variety of vitamins. Besides edible, Dictyophora has high medicinal value. It is reported that Dictyophora is an ideal therapeutic food for patients with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Eating Dictyophora often can also reduce the storage of abdominal wall fat. In recent years, polysaccharides with antitumor activity have been found in the hot water extract of Dictyophora.
Dictyophora was first domesticated in China in the 1980s. The raw materials used for artificial cultivation of Dictyophora indusiata include bamboo, stump wood, bagasse, sawdust, etc. The pure mother strain was obtained by using potato culture medium with pH value of 4.5-5 and cultured at 15-20 ℃ for 15-20 days. The pure mycelium was white and turned pink or purplish red when exposed to light. In the same way, the same temperature was used to make the original seeds. The original seed can be used directly, and can be further expanded into cultivation seed. When the temperature rises to above 15 ℃ in early spring, 3-5cm soil should be covered after inoculation, so as to keep moisture and produce bacterial cords. Keep the air moist and covered with soil. The optimum temperature for fruiting body development is 23-26 ℃. If the cultivation conditions are suitable, the mycelial cords will grow in one month, the buds will appear in two months, and they can be harvested in about three months. After harvesting, the spores are washed, the fungus tray and soil are removed, and then dried or dried. White color, large body, no moth for the top grade.
Here is a brief introduction to Dictyophora
There are different varieties of Dictyophora. For example, Dictyophora elongata is a good cultivar because of its fast growth, large size and high yield. The mycelium growth of Dictyophora Bretschneidera was slower than that of Dictyophora elongata, so the production cycle was longer.
Commercial Dictyophora is a dry product processed by dehydration, and only edible stipe and skirt are retained. The complete fruiting body of Dictyophora indusiata consists of pileus, stipes, aprons and trays.
The mature Dictyophora consists of four parts: cap, receptacle, stipe and skirt
Cap campanulate, white or slightly earthy, 2-4 cm high, with irregular polygonal depressions on the surface. The top is flat with round or oval holes. The sporophyte layer is attached to the concave surface of the cap, and spores are attached to it. The spores are dark green or yellowish green. At the initial stage, they are succulent. After being exposed to the air, they liquefy rapidly into viscous substances, giving off a strong fishy smell, which can attract insects to eat sweets and transmit spores. The spores are columnar, 3-4 μ m in size and 2-3 μ m in size. They are colorless and transparent with smooth surface.
The remaining part of a broken stipe is attached to a string of bacteria deep into the soil and supports the stipe. The egg shaped stipe is sheathed and has three layers. The outer layer is called outer membrane, the middle is white colloidal body, and the inner layer is inner membrane.
Stipe columnar, white, hollow, porous, spongy, crisp and tender. It is one of the edible parts of commodities.
The white reticular tissue between the pileus and the stipe. Therefore, it is called edible mushroom skirt. The length of the fungus skirt is 4-20 cm or longer, most of which are white and some are yellow (Dictyophora lutea).
The fruiting body of Dictyophora indusiata is a reproductive organ growing on the ground, and there are mycelium and mycelia under the ground. The mycelial material has been mature enough. At this time, when the growth conditions are suitable, many mycelial cords are intertwined and twisted together, and the top of the mycelial cords gradually expands to form primordia, and then grows into buds, commonly known as mycelial balls and mushroom eggs.
Under natural conditions, the bud grows in the humus soil layer 1-2 cm above the surface, which is formed by the gradual expansion of the apex of the mycelium. At the initial stage, it is rice grain-shaped and white. After a period of time, they can develop into egg balls larger or larger. At the beginning, there are spines on the surface of the bud, and the bristles disappear in the later stage, showing pink, brown or dirty white. The inside of the bud is the larva of the fruiting body of Dictyophora indusiata. With the change of temperature, the time for the bud to crack and extend the fruiting body varies. It takes about 20 days for artificial cultivation and more than 60 days for low temperature.
According to its characteristics, it can be divided into six periods
At the stage of primordium differentiation, the rhizome was physiologically mature, and the apex was expanded and differentiated into small nodular buds.
In the globular stage, the buds of the tumor shaped bacteria expanded into spherical bacteria, and the internal organs were well differentiated. There are prickles on the surface, white, and small cracks on the top.
In the egg stage, the top of the globular bud is protruding, the cracks are increased, and the bristles recede, which are similar to eggs and produce pigment on the surface.
When the relative humidity of the outside air was above 85% and the water content of the substrate was about 70%, the stipe could break the outer membrane of the bud. At this time, a thin crack appeared at the top of the transparent bud. The white inner membrane can be seen through the colloid, and then the orifice at the top of the cap can be seen. This period often occurs at 5-8 a.m.
When the stipe extended for a long time, the stipe elongated rapidly, the cap was exposed, and the skirt gradually opened.
In the forming stage, the stipe stopped to elongate, the skirt opened to the maximum, and the fruiting body formed.
The growth conditions of Dictyophora were as follows
1. Dictyophora is a kind of saprophytic fungus, which has no specificity for nutrients. It has the same requirements as general saprophytic fungi. Its nutrition includes carbon source, nitrogen source, inorganic salt and vitamin. The carbon source is mainly provided by lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Bamboo rhizome, bamboo leaf, bamboo branch, hardwood wood block, sawdust, corn straw, corn cob, soybean straw, wheat straw and so on are often used to cultivate Dictyophora indusiata. In general, a small amount of urea, soybean cake, bran, rice bran, livestock manure and other nitrogen sources are often added to the culture medium. In order to meet the needs of the growth and development of Dictyophora indusiata, the appropriate amount of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate are often added in the medium. The content of micro biotics is rich in potato, bran and rice bran, so it is not necessary to add them.
2. Temperature most of Dictyophora species (Dictyophora elongata and Dictyophora brevicornis) belong to moderate temperature type fungi. The temperature of mycelium growth is 8-30 ℃, the suitable temperature is 15-28 ℃, higher than 30 ℃ or lower than 8 ℃, the mycelial growth is slow or even stops growing. The fruiting body was formed at 16-25 ℃, and the optimum temperature was 22 ℃. In the suitable temperature range, the growth rate of fruiting bodies increased with the increase of temperature. It is necessary to know the temperature type of the varieties and arrange the production season according to the local climate conditions.
3. The water needed for the growth and development of Dictyophora is mainly from the substrate. In the vegetative growth period, 60% - 65% of the water content of the medium was suitable. In the fruit body development stage, the water content of medium and soil should be increased to 70% - 75% in order to facilitate the absorption and transportation of nutrients. At the same time, the relative humidity of air has a great influence on the growth and development of Dictyophora indusiata. Generally speaking, the air relative humidity should be maintained at 65% - 75% in the vegetative growth stage of Dictyophora indusiata. In the reproductive growth stage, the air humidity should be increased to 80%; the air humidity should be increased to 85% from the bud maturity to the break stage; the air humidity should be about 90% from the break to the stipe extension stage; the air humidity should be above 95% during the opening period of the mushroom skirt. At this time, if the air humidity is low, the mushroom skirt is difficult to open and stick together and lose the commodity value.
4. Dictyophora aeruginosa belongs to aerobic bacteria. Therefore, the air must be fresh for the growth and development of mycelium, the growth of fungus ball and the development of fruiting body. Otherwise, if the concentration of carbon dioxide is too high, it will not only slow the growth of mycelium, but also affect the normal development of fruiting bodies. But we must also pay attention to avoid the wind blowing when spreading the skirt of Dictyophora, otherwise it will be deformed.
5. The growth and development of Dictyophora indusiata under light does not need light, and the hyphae become red and easy to age. In nature, Dictyophora indusiata grows in bamboo forest and forest land with 90% shade degree. Therefore, the light intensity should be controlled within 15-200 lux in the artificial cultivation site of Dictyophora indusiata, and attention should be paid to avoid direct sunlight.
6. Soil and pH value in nature, the growth of Dictyophora indusiata is inseparable from the soil. In order to induce the occurrence of Dictyophora indusiata, a 3-5 cm thick soil layer must be covered on the substrate surface for artificial cultivation. The growth of Dictyophora was required to be pH 4.0-6.