Cultivation techniques of huanger No.10 [nongguangtiandi]
Huanger 10 cultivation technology [nongguangtiandi] video from: CCTV nongguangtiandi
[nongguangtiandi] huanger No.10 cultivation technology:
Huanger No. 10 was bred by the soil and Fertilizer Research Institute of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, national edible fungus industry system post expert, researcher Wang Bo and his team. He selected excellent mutants from Auricularia auricula and cultivated excellent varieties through continuous selection and elimination of inferior ones. Huanger No. 10 is the only one suitable for fresh and dried Auricularia auricula. It has the advantages of high yield, rich nutrition, strong stress resistance and easy cultivation. More than 0.9 kg fresh ears could be harvested in 1 kg medium. This paper introduces the characteristics and cultivation advantages of huanger 10. In addition, the paper also introduced the process of original seed propagation, cultivation seed production, subsequent mycelial cultivation and fruiting body cultivation of huanger 10. I hope that by watching this film, we can let the audience know about the new variety of yellow ear No. 10 and add a profitable breeding project.
1、 The mushroom house should be built in a place with high terrain, convenient drainage and stacking site. For mushroom shed with bamboo and wood structure, the shed frame should be firm, the wall and roof around the shed should be covered with thick film, and covered with straw curtain and sunshade net. The size of the greenhouse is determined by the cultivation scale, and it is generally suitable to cultivate 110-330m2 mushrooms in each shed. 2. Bed frame arrangement, mushroom bed and mushroom room are arranged vertically. Don't lean against the wall around the mushroom bed. Leave a 0.6-meter-wide aisle. If the mushroom room is less than 3 meters narrow, only one middle aisle can be left. A passage of 0.6 m is reserved between the bed frames. The bed frame can be built in 4-5 layers. The distance between each layer of mushroom is 0.6 m, the bottom layer is 15-30 cm above the ground, and the top layer is 1.3-1.5 m away from the top of the shed. The length of the bed frame depends on the mushroom house. The bed frame is generally built of bamboo and wood, with a pair of upper and lower windows on the walls at both ends of the corridor; the upper window is about 15 cm away from the shed eaves, and the lower window is about 10 cm above the ground. The size of the window should be 40 × 45 cm. A draft tube should be set on the top of the middle shed every 2-3 shed roads. The height of the tube is 1.3-1.5 meters, and the top is equipped with a hood.
2、 Composting and fermentation of culture material 1. Source of culture material. There are mainly manure, straw, wheat straw, cake fertilizer, fertilizer, gypsum, lime and so on. 2. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C / N) was determined. In the process of composting, if the nitrogen content is too low, the microbial activity will be weakened, the material temperature is not high, the fermentation is not sufficient, and the mixed seedlings are easy to dye. If the nitrogen content is too high, the ammonia, amine and amide content in the fermented material will be too high, which will inhibit the growth of mushroom seedling silk [source: www.novmv. COM /]. In the production, the C / N ratio before fermentation is 30-33:1, and that after fermentation is 17:1. 3. The formula of culture medium (based on 110m2 cultivation area) is as follows: (1) 1000 kg dry cow dung, 1000 kg barley grass, 250 kg vegetable cake, 25 kg superphosphate, 40 kg gypsum powder, 50 kg lime, and 32:1 C / N ratio. (2) The results showed that 1 500 kg dry cow dung, 1000 kg straw and wheat straw, 45 kg cake, 40 kg gypsum powder and 40 kg lime, and the C / N ratio was 2943:1. In the case of lack of manure, manure free cultivation can also be implemented. Most of the composts were mixed with 6:4, 5:5 and 4:6. 4. Composting and fermentation (1) composting time: about 20-25 days before sowing. (2) Pile building and fermentation: clean up the site before piling. Generally, the pile width is 2.1 m, the pile height is 1.5 m, and the pile length is not limited. The thickness of straw is about 12 meters, and then the straw is spread on the four sides, and then the straw is spread on the four sides, and the thickness is about 10-3 meters. The lower three layers are not watered. From the fourth layer, the more water is poured, the more vegetable cakes and urea are added layer by layer during pile construction. After stacking, the four sides should be neat and vertical, and the top should be piled in turtle shape. After piling up, they should be covered with grass or agricultural film to prevent the sun and rain. In addition, after the pile is built, the water at the bottom of the material will flow out. ① For conventional fermentation (one-time fermentation), after the fermentation of manure straw pile, it is necessary to turn the pile frequently to adjust the moisture content of the compost, emit harmful gases, promote the reproduction of beneficial microorganisms, accelerate the decomposition and transformation of nutrients in the culture medium, and kill the miscellaneous seedlings and some pests through the temperature of the heap. The first composting was carried out 5-6 days after the construction of the reactor. The main purpose was to fully change the position of the upper and lower materials, the inner and outer materials, so that the fermentation was consistent or the heat was uniform. When turning over the pile, water the material layer by layer to make the moisture in the material drop down to the degree of being pinched by hand. The second time was carried out 4-5 days after the first turning, when the reactor temperature reached about 75 ℃ and began to drop. The third time should be carried out 4 days after the second turning. At this time, the moisture content of the material should be about 70%. The pH value of the material can be 7.5-8 by adding gypsum powder. The fourth time was carried out 3-4 days after the third time, and the fifth time was about 3 days after the fourth time. After 5 times of composting, the mushroom room could be entered in 2-3 days. In the whole process, the turning interval is generally 6,5,4,3 days. The standard of fermented compost is: dark brown color, no odor, no ammonia, moderate heat generation, even straw, with certain tightness and aroma. ② Second fermentation, this method is an effective technology popularized and applied in recent ten years. The whole process is divided into outdoor pre fermentation and indoor post fermentation. Outdoor pre fermentation: the method is the same as the conventional fermentation, but the stacking period is about 10 days outside the conventional fermentation, and the compost is turned over three times. When the material temperature reaches 70 ~ 75 ℃, the indoor fermentation is carried out. Indoor post fermentation: including three stages of heating, heat preservation and cooling. Before the culture material enters the room, spray 0.4% dichlorvos and 0.4% formaldehyde on the surface of the material pile to kill the seedlings, and then cover the material pile with plastic film, and then enter the room after 3-5 hours. a. In the heating stage, the pre fermented culture materials are put into the room while they are hot, and stacked on the middle and upper bed frames, while the bottom layer is not put. Then close the doors and windows, first let the temperature rise to above 45 ℃, and then increase the temperature. Heating can be done by coal furnace, electric furnace or outdoor open fire. The temperature of mushroom room was raised to 62 ℃ by heating for 4-6 hours. b. The temperature of fermentation material was reduced to 52 ℃ for 3 days. c. In the cooling stage, when the material temperature drops to about 45-50 ℃, it is maintained for 12 hours. When the temperature drops below 45 ℃, the door and window are opened to make the material temperature drop rapidly, and then the fermentation is completed. 3、 Turn grid, sowing 1, turn grid. After the culture material is put into the room for fermentation, the window is opened for ventilation, and then the grid is turned. Loosen the material layer to make the manure and grass mix evenly, and the material layer has the same tightness. Pick out the impurities and dung blocks, level the bed surface, and pat it tightly. Then clean the ground and prepare to sow. 2. Sowing. When the material temperature drops to about 28 ℃, it can be sown. Before sowing, check whether there is ammonia in the material and whether the moisture content of the material is qualified (65-68%). If there is ammonia gas, it is necessary to make up for it again to emit ammonia gas. If the moisture content of material is insufficient, lime water can be used to adjust; if it is too wet, ventilation can be increased. The sowing methods include hole sowing, drilling, spreading and mixed sowing. The sowing rate varies with the type and culture of seedlings. 4、 Under normal management after sowing, villous filaments can germinate in 1-2 days after sowing, and begin to "feed" in 3 days. Three days after sowing, the ventilation rate should be increased with the growth of mushroom shreds. 7-10 days after sowing, the shredded mushroom is usually covered with noodles. The reason is that the bed material can not grow too fast. It can also be used to insert tweezers into the material beside the mushroom seed to pry loose the material and reduce the temperature. It's only about 20 days. 5、 Covering soil with soil is an important means to change the growth of monofilament to fruiting body in mushroom cultivation. At present, the main method is "one-time covering of river mud". The specific method is to prepare 700-750 kg congee like river mud with 45% water content per 100 m2 and 75 kg rice husk. The rice husk should be fresh. It should be exposed to the sun for 2 days before use, soaked in lime with pH value of 10 for 24 hours, and then removed and killed with 0.5% dichlorvos. Then the rice husk and mud were mixed in the ratio of 1:10 to make the pH value 7.5. The thickness of covering soil is 2 cm, and the upper part is scraped dry by hand to make the thickness uniform. After covering with soil, drill holes on the material surface and properly ventilate. 6、 In the early stage, the bed was not covered with water and soil. If the humidity is lower than the required humidity, light spray can be used to humidify. (1) Water diversion and ventilation. The principle of water transfer is to wet first and then to dry. The total water transfer force is 10 kg / m2. The water is transferred in three days. The water spraying method of light at both ends and heavy in the middle is adopted. When spraying water, the doors and windows should be opened for ventilation. (2) Spray mushroom water. When the Pleurotus ostreatus lay in the middle of the soil, the filamentous soil of the Pleurotus ostreatus can be inhibited. After spraying mushroom water, ventilate for 2 days, and then reduce ventilation to promote the growth of mushroom filaments (hanging mushroom), so as to prepare for continuous mushroom production in the future. (3) Spray mushroom water. When the mushroom fruiting body generally grows to the size of mung bean, the growth is accelerated, and a large amount of water is needed, so it is necessary to spray "mushroom water". The amount of water for mushroom production is about the same as that of fruiting water. Every 25 kg / m2, it is sprayed 5-6 times. The amount of each spray depends on the number of fruiting bodies of the bed. If there are more mushrooms, they will be sprayed more, if they are less, they will be less. The spraying time was 4-6 days after spraying the mushroom water. After spraying water, the ventilation quantity of mushroom room was gradually reduced, the humidity of mushroom room was increased, and the relative humidity of air was kept about 90%. 7、 It takes about 40 days from sowing to picking. In our county, a mushroom appears in late September and ends in late December. Generally, 5-6 batches of autumn mushroom can be collected. The main management measures are water spraying, ventilation and heat preservation. 1. In the early stage, more water should be used while more water should be used in the later stage. In the early stage of autumn mushroom spraying should be carried out at low temperature in the morning and evening. 2. Ventilation, temperature and humidity control during the growth and development of mushrooms, it is necessary to absorb oxygen and discharge CO2. In addition, the microorganisms in the culture medium should be decomposed and changed to keep the fresh air in the mushroom room. During the fruit body growing to harvest, the humidity of mushroom room should be increased. The relative humidity should reach 90%. 3. Clean the bed surface. Clean the bed surface in time after each batch of mushrooms are harvested. Remove the roots and dead mushrooms with tweezers, then cover with fine soil, spray water, and clean the mushroom room. 4. When the third batch of mushroom has been harvested, it will consume a lot of nutrients. Therefore, appropriate Topdressing of poultry manure, animal urine, urea, soybean milk, bean sprout juice, malt or no. 8、 The temperature of mushroom room is about 5 ℃, which is not suitable for mushroom fruiting body development. During this period, the management content is heat preservation and ventilation. Generally, water should be sprayed every 7-8 days, and the water content should be about 15% (the soil surface should not turn white). Keep the indoor temperature at normal temperature for 3-4 hours every day. By the middle of March, when the temperature is stable above 10 ℃, water can be adjusted and nutrition can be supplemented. When the temperature reaches 15 ~ 25 ℃, it is the best time for spring mushroom to grow. 9、 When harvesting mushrooms, the cover should be 2-4cm straight. If the mushroom ring is not broken and the mushroom umbrella is not opened, it is required that the mushroom should be free from mud root, insect damage and mechanical injury, and should be picked frequently during peak period (2-3 times a day). It is necessary to achieve "three rounds" (round mining, cutting and releasing), "three sides" (simultaneous mining, cutting and grading), "three fast" (fast collection, fast loading and fast transportation), and "one reduction" (reducing the number of turnover). 10、 The common diseases and insect pests of mushroom are: white rot, soft rot, sudden down disease, pseudomosquito, flea fly, mite dung, flea, and Rattus, etc. The main control methods are to disinfect the mushroom room and culture materials, then ferment, pay attention to the sanitation of the mushroom room, and use appropriate medicine due to different diseases and insect pests.
The following steps should be paid attention to when planting edible fungi in the basement with distiller's grains: 1. 2. The distiller's grains should be mixed with cottonseed hull or sawdust, and should not be planted completely with distiller's grains, otherwise the mushroom production is not ideal. Generally, 30% of distiller's grains and 70% of cottonseed hull or sawdust are mixed. 3. Use the pre mixed material to make the moisture content reach about 60%, and then sow. When cultivating pleurotus ostreatus, the sowing rate is 15% - 20%. Sow while bagging. 4. If the mushroom seeds cultivated with clinker are cultivated, high-pressure disinfection should be carried out. At 126 ℃ for 3 hours, then inoculated. 5. The basement should be fumigated and disinfected with bijieshi brand chlorine dioxide disinfectant before use. The dosage: one tablet of disinfectant is used to disinfect 3 cubic meters. Ventilation and lighting conditions should be provided in the basement.