According to different uses, Ganoderma lucidum is divided into two types: Ornamental Ganoderma lucidum and medicinal Ganoderma lucidum. The ornamental Ganoderma lucidum is mostly used as bonsai ornamental in different posture, while the medicinal Ganoderma lucidum is more used as Chinese medicine to enter the market. Ganoderma lucidum is rich in nutrition, has a certain inhibitory effect on tumor, can inhibit reactions such as allergy and inflammation of human body, restore fatigue and help human metabolism. There are two ways to cultivate Ganoderma lucidum: bag cultivation and section wood cultivation. This film explains in detail the cultivation methods of Ganoderma lucidum. According to the different characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum growth stage, different management methods are used.
Ganoderma lucidum is a kind of rare and precious edible fungus. It is often called "four edible fungi" which are beneficial to human body together with Pleurotus ostreatus, Volvariella volvacea and Lentinus edodes. The fungus meat is thick, the cap and stalk are crisp and tender, and the taste is delicious and has the flavor of Ganoderma lucidum, so it is called "Ganoderma mushroom".
1、 Morphological characteristics: the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum is solitary or clumped, the pileus is round at the initial stage and flattened at the later stage. The diameter of the single fruiting body is 10-20 cm, the center is slightly concave to funnel-shaped, round or fan-shaped, with villous surface, grayish brown to light yellow white, white flesh; the stipe is 5-18 cm long, white and smooth, partial to lateral, rod-shaped to corm-shaped, round in cross-section, and solid in flesh The fruiting bodies are in the shape of stacked mountains, called "mushroom mountains", with a diameter of 20-50 cm, and the weight of a "mushroom mountain" can reach 5-10 kg.
2、 Biological characteristics 1. Nutritional requirements. Ganoderma lucidum is a kind of edible fungus with strong ability to decompose fiber rope, lignin and protein. Carbon and nitrogen sources in various agricultural and sideline products and raw materials for cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus can be absorbed and utilized, especially the main materials such as cottonseed hull, waste cotton, hardwood sawdust, corncob, etc., and adding appropriate amount of wheat bran, rice bran, corn flour and other auxiliary materials to improve the nitrogen source. Because the more abundant nitrogen source of Ganoderma lucidum, the better the mycelial growth, the higher the yield. 2. Temperature and humidity. At the growth stage of mycelium, the water content of the culture medium is 60% - 65%, the optimum temperature is 20 ℃ - 26 ℃, the air relative humidity is 85% - 95%, the temperature is between 10 ℃ and 25 ℃, and 15 ℃ - 18 ℃ is the best. Ganoderma lucidum has good resistance to low temperature and high temperature. It can withstand low temperature of 0 ℃ and high temperature of 30 ℃. 3. Light and air. The mycelial growth stage does not need light, but needs fresh air. During the fruiting period, 500-1000 lux light or scattered light was given to strengthen ventilation. Poor ventilation, slow growth of mycelium, delay of primordium differentiation and atrophy of mushroom bud. 4. PH. The optimum pH value of culture medium was 6.5-7.5 at the growth stage of mycelium and 5.5-6.5 at the fruiting stage. 3、 The technique of imitating wild cultivation 1. The first grade mother species, the second grade original species and the third grade cultivated species of Ganoderma lucidum can be prepared by the formula and method of the general culture medium of full nutrition and high nitrogen type granular bacteria, and then coated with edible strain coating agent and put into the culture container of mother, original and cultivated species [source: www.novmv. COM /]. The mother and original culture media were sterilized for 40 minutes in the "SUPOR" household pressure cooker respectively; the cultivated seed medium was put into the "space sterilization package" for sterilization for 3-4 hours, and then removed after cooling to normal temperature. The patented product "four types of sterile inoculator" for inoculation can be sterilized and sterilized without electricity, medicine, alcohol and steam. The above culture medium is placed on the operating platform of the inoculator combined with the sterile purification device and the inoculation console, and the whole process of full open inoculation, propagation and transplantation of mother, original and cultivated seeds can be carried out directly and randomly. After that, they were cultured in a clean environment at 20 ℃～ 30 ℃ and covered with mycelium in 10-12 days. The rate of finished product was more than 98%. 2. Bag making with ingredients. ① Cottonseed hull 88%, corn mixed powder 10%, lime 1%, calcium carbonate 1%; 2) miscellaneous wood chips 75%, wheat bran 22%, sugar 1%, lime 1%, calcium carbonate 1%; 3) cottonseed hull 50%, miscellaneous wood chips 30%, corn mixed powder 18%, lime 1%, gypsum powder 1%. The water content of the formula is 60% - 65%. Weigh the above culture materials in proportion, place them on the ground of the mixing yard and mix them evenly. Adjust the water content of 60% - 65%. Fill with 17 × 33 × 0.004 cm angle folded polyethylene bag or polypropylene bag, each bag contains 500 g dry material, and the wet weight is about 1100 g, and the diagonal reverse fold is directly inserted for sealing. After filling, put it into a large empty sterilization bag (self-made about 30 yuan, can hold 500-800 bags) for sterilization for 4-5 hours, and then take it out after cooling to normal temperature. On the operation platform of inoculation, two people cooperate to open the opening of the bag to access the bacteria. Each 750 g bottle of cultivated Ganoderma lucidum can receive 40-60 bags of material bags. After inoculation, the bacteria were cultured in a clean and sanitary room. The temperature was kept between 20 ℃ and 25 ℃ and the relative humidity of the air was above 70%. Ventilate 1-2 times a day, keep the air fresh, and fill the bag with mycelium about 30 days. 3. Cultivation method (1) imitated wild cultivation in protected area, the Ganoderma lucidum mushroom is imitated to be cultivated in the plastic greenhouse, and the prepared Ganoderma lucidum rod (which requires to produce good bacteria or inoculate the mycelium into pieces) or the composted mushroom material is transferred into the plastic greenhouse, and then the Ganoderma lucidum can be produced. Time of moving into plastic greenhouse: late February and early August. Ganoderma lucidum mushroom is buried in the ground, that is, 1.5-2 meters flat border is made in the greenhouse, and the mushroom stick is placed flat in the border, covered with soil about 2 cm. The temperature and humidity in the greenhouse should be regulated after the mushroom rods are moved into the plastic greenhouse, so as to meet the growth needs of Ganoderma lucidum to achieve high yield and harvest. (2) The artificial fast-growing forest land with shade of more than 70% in 4-5-year-old forest land was selected (the auxiliary measures such as shading net could be appropriately added in the weak forest land to improve the shade degree). The prepared Ganoderma lucidum rod (the rod with good bacteria or inoculated hyphae connected into pieces) or composted fungus material were prepared in advance, and 1.5-2 meters were made in the forest land at the end of April and the beginning of August In dry and dry areas, plastic arched shed should be built on the bed of Ganoderma lucidum, and timely watering can increase humidity to meet the growth needs of Ganoderma lucidum. 4. When the cap of the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum is flat and concave in the middle, there is a little fluff on the surface, and the spores have not been ejected, it is the appropriate time to harvest. There are six advantages in the production of Ganoderma lucidum in this mode. First, the forest resources are rich and can be large-scale plant To reduce the contradiction between agriculture and forestry. Second, the forest is luxuriant and covered with shade, so there is no need to build houses and build sheds for heat preservation, so as to reduce the investment cost of facilities; the third is that the growth conditions come from nature, the oxygen content in the forest is sufficient, and the temperature is lower than that outside the forest, the temperature difference is large, and the air humidity is high, which is suitable for the growth of Ganoderma lucidum. It does not need to create climate conditions artificially, and the management is extensive and labor-saving. The fourth is that the air in the orchard is fresh and pollution-free, which can produce pollution-free food. The quality of Ganoderma lucidum mushroom is good, the mushroom taste is strong, and the nutrition is rich. Fifthly, the waste used in the production of Ganoderma lucidum can be used as fuel, and also can directly provide organic fertilizer for the growth of orchard trees, which can not only promote the growth of trees, but also reduce the waste disposal, which meets the requirements of ecological agriculture. The sixth is to improve the utilization rate of forest land and increase the benefit, which is about 5000-20000 yuan per mu.
Ganoderma lucidum, also known as Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma lucidum, has the functions of nourishing and strengthening, eliminating inflammation and phlegm, relieving cough and asthma. The production of Ganoderma lucidum in bottle (or bag) is easy to learn. (1) Preparation of nutrients. ① The moisture content of the mixture is about 70%; the moisture content of the mixed material is about 75% of the sawdust, about 25% of the wheat bran, and about 60% of the water content of the mixture; ③ about 50% of the miscellaneous wood chips, 50% of the wheat bran, 0.1% of the urea, and 60% of the water content of the mixture; ④ 79% of the cottonseed bran, 20% of the wheat bran, 1% of the sucrose, and the moisture content of the mixture 60% - 65%; ⑤ corn stalk dregs 50%, miscellaneous wood chips about 30%, wheat bran about 20%, moisture content of mixture 60% - 65%; ⑥ poplar leaves 75%, rice bran (or wheat bran) 25%, mixture moisture content 60%; 7) straw powder 45%, miscellaneous wood chips about 30%, wheat bran (or rice bran) about 25%, moisture content of mixture 60% - 65%. (2) Loading and sterilization. Mix the culture material and simmer for half an hour before loading. Conventional plastic bags can hold 0.25-0.3 kg of dry materials. When bagging, use hand to compact, the material surface should be flat, and then use a cone-shaped wooden stick to tie a 2.5cm diameter air hole from the center of the material surface, plug the bag mouth with cotton plug, and wrap a layer of kraft paper. It can be packed into a bottle with a diameter of 1 000 cm or a bottle with a volume of 3.4 cm. After loading, the material bags (or bottles) are arranged in the pot in layers, and sterilized under the pressure of 1.5 kg / cm2 for 1-2 hours or atmospheric pressure for 8-10 hours. It is required to load, sterilize and inoculate on the same day. (3) Inoculation and culture. Inoculation is best carried out in the inoculation box. If there is no inoculation box, it can be carried out above the flame of alcohol lamp or above the boiling water vapor. The inoculation room and inoculation tools should also be strictly disinfected. The staff should wear masks and wash their hands with soap three times. Take out a piece of jujube sized strain from the bottle with the inoculation rake or tweezers, quickly put it into the cultivation material bottle (bag), and then put the bottle mouth (or bag mouth) with cotton plug and wrapped with kraft paper, and then move to the sterilized culture room for cultivation and sterilization. Keep the room temperature from 24 ℃ to 28 ℃, and the mycelium will grow into the bottle (bag) about 25 days after inoculation. In the stage of infection, the management should be strengthened to prevent the contamination of miscellaneous bacteria, and those contaminated by miscellaneous bacteria should be eliminated in time. When the bottle (bag) was full of hyphae, white buds with big fingers appeared on the surface of the culture medium, that is, fruiting body primordia. When the growth is close to the cotton plug, the cotton plug can be pulled out. The room temperature is controlled at 26-28 ℃, and the relative humidity is increased to 80% - 90%. With scattered light and ventilation every day, the stipe can grow out of the bottle (bag) mouth in about 20 days, and the stalk end will differentiate into a cap. When the light white or light yellow on the edge of the cap disappeared, the cap edge stopped growing and became hard, and the color changed from bright to dark pink brown. (4) Disease control. In the production process, attention should be paid to prevent the infection of miscellaneous bacteria, such as Penicillium, Mucor and Rhizopus. Prevention and control methods: the inoculation process should be strictly aseptic; the culture materials should be disinfected thoroughly; proper ventilation should be adopted to reduce the humidity; for mild infection, the local miscellaneous bacteria and the surrounding bark should be scraped off with a disinfection blade, and then smeared with concentrated lime milk, or filled into the hole with absorbent cotton dipped in 75% alcohol; those with serious pollution should be eliminated in time.