Cultivation techniques of Pleurotus ostreatus with bag full clinker
Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as Pleurotus and Pearl mushroom, belongs to Mycota, Basidiomycota, basidiomycetes, Umbelliferae, hyphomycetes and Pholiota. Pleurotus ostreatus is a rare variety. It is delicious and nutritious. It is a health food and a foreign exchange earning product. At present, China is mainly distributed in northern Hebei and Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Fujian, Taiwan and other regions. Pingquan County, Hebei Province, is the largest production base of Pleurotus ostreatus in China, and it is the "hometown of smooth mushroom in China". Since the county began scale production in 1989, the output and quality of Pleurotus ostreatus have been continuously improved by taking advantage of local resources and climate advantages and continuous technological innovation of scientific and technological personnel. It has become the leading product of edible fungi industry in Pingquan County. The annual output is 100000 tons, accounting for 40% of the total output of the country and 25% of the world output. It has a large market share, and has become the first choice for rural areas to get rid of poverty and become rich. The traditional cultivation mode of Pleurotus ostreatus is semi clinker tray planting, block planting or space bag cultivation. However, with the increase of temperature in spring and the continuous expansion of production scale of Pleurotus ostreatus in the north, the harm of heterospores in the environment is also increasing, and the pollution rate is increasing. Therefore, in order to improve the yield and conversion rate of Pleurotus ostreatus, we studied the high-yield cultivation technology of Pleurotus ostreatus with bag type full clinker in North China through many years of cultivation practice. This technology can achieve high yield, low pollution rate, short cultivation cycle and fast yield. Now the high-yield standardized cultivation technology of Pleurotus ostreatus is popularized to the majority of farmers, in order to make contributions for more farmers to get rid of poverty and get rich and go to a well-off society.
Biological characteristics 1
Pleurotus ostreatus is a kind of low temperature edible fungus. The fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus are mostly clustered, dense or clustered. It is composed of cap, fold and stipe. To create a good growth environment is to meet the needs of mycelium and fruiting body growth of Pleurotus ostreatus.
One is nutrition: Pleurotus ostreatus is a kind of wood rot fungus, which grows on broad-leaved trees in nature, especially on the stumps and fallen trees of Fagaceae. The cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus was cultivated with sawdust, corncob, rice bran, wheat bran and other agricultural and sideline products rich in lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and protein.
The second is temperature: the mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus can grow at 5 ~ 32 ℃, and the optimum temperature is 15 ~ 20 ℃. The fruiting bodies can grow at 10-18 ℃; when the temperature is higher than 20 ℃, the fruiting bodies grow slowly and do not grow when the temperature is lower than 5 ℃.
Third, light: the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus does not need direct light, but must have enough scattered light. The mycelium can grow normally in dark environment, but light can induce the mycelium of Pleurotus marmoreus. A certain amount of scattered light should be given at the stage of mushroom emergence. The light is too dark, the mushroom body is deformed, the cap is small, the color is light, the stipe is slender, the quality is poor, moderate scattered light is an important ecological condition to promote the fruiting body early maturity and high yield.
The fourth is humidity: the moisture content of Mycelium Culture material is 60% - 65%, and the relative humidity of air is about 60%. At the fruiting stage, 70% - 75% moisture content and 85% - 95% air relative humidity are the key to high yield of fruiting body.
Fifthly, air: Pleurotus ostreatus is also an aerobic fungus. Sufficient oxygen is needed for mycelial growth and fruiting body growth. The oxygen demand is related to the respiratory intensity. Only when the oxygen is sufficient can the normal growth and development be achieved. In the air, oxygen accounts for 21%, nitrogen accounts for 78%, and carbon dioxide accounts for 0.03%. In early spring, at the beginning of inoculation, the temperature is low, the mycelium grows slowly, and a small amount of oxygen can meet the needs; with the increase of temperature, the metabolism of mycelium is accelerated, the respiratory capacity increases, and the mycelium volume increases. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the ventilation of mushroom room and the ventilation inside and outside the bag. In the fruiting stage, the metabolism of fruiting body is very vigorous, and fresh air is needed. In the environment, if the concentration of carbon dioxide is more than 1%, the fruiting body has small cap, thin stipe and early umbrella opening.
The sixth is pH value (pH value): the pH value of culture medium directly affects the activity of cell enzyme, and pH value is 5-6 for mycelial growth of Pleurotus ostreatus. The pH value of the culture material made of sawdust, wheat bran and rice bran is generally 6-7, but the pH value will drop after heating and sterilization, so it is unnecessary to adjust the pH value.
2. High yield Cultivation Techniques
2.1 production time
Pleurotus ostreatus is a kind of low temperature and variable temperature fruiting fungus. In northern China, the normal season cultivation mode of spring planting and autumn emergence is generally adopted. It is suitable to cultivate with full clinker when cultivating. The best sowing time is from late February to late March, and the mushroom emergence management is from August to October in autumn. The sowing time of anti season Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation is from late November to late December, and the next year's mushroom management is from April to November.
2.2 facilities and equipment
2.2.1 shed: at present, the commonly used facilities are mushroom producing shed, which is 50 meters long and 8 meters wide. It adopts steel bar, magnesite and steel pipe structure shed, which is covered with double-layer plastic and sandwiched with double-layer felt. When the temperature is high, a sunshade net is set at the top of the shed to cool the temperature. The inside and outside of the mushroom shed are clean, far away from pollutants and close to the water source.
2.2.2 equipment: ① sterilization equipment: steam boiler aeration sterilization method is adopted. The boiler platform can be built with bricks, and the simple sterilization shed with steel pipe welding is placed on it. At the same time, insulation items such as cover plastic, quilt or cotton felt and rope are prepared for fixation. ② Production equipment: saw foam processing machine, vibrating screen, conveyor belt, mixing machine, bagging machine, greenhouse heating equipment, etc.
2.3 strain selection
The common cultivated varieties are Zaosheng 2, Zaofeng 112 and C3 series. Selection requirements: from the appearance, the mycelium is white and fluffy, with dense, uniform and robust growth; the mycelium age is 30-45 days, without aging, shrinking, breaking into pieces by hand, and no water accumulation.
2.4 cultivation techniques
The technological process of cultivation techniques of Pleurotus ostreatus is as follows: ingredients → mixing → bagging → sterilization → cooling → inoculation → germinating management → mushroom production management → harvesting.
2.4.1 ingredients: the raw materials are mainly saw foam, wheat bran and gypsum. Common formula: sawdust 80%, wheat bran 18%, gypsum 1%. Among them, coarse sawdust should be old sawdust stored for more than two months. Wheat bran must be fresh and free of impurities. Fine sawdust is band saw foam except pine and cypress sawdust. It is strictly forbidden to add carbendazim, clotrimazole and other bactericidal drugs in the culture material, and to add micronutrients that have an impact on edible fungus products.
2.4.2 mixing materials: weigh various raw materials accurately according to the selected formula. The agglomerated or coarse sawdust is screened out by vibrating screen, and the material is mixed with mixer in advance. The mixed culture material is stuffy for 2 hours, and the moisture content is 55% ~ 60%. When the bag containing the culture material is 15.3 cm × 55 ~ 40 cm, the weight is 2000 ~ 3200 g / bag.
2.4.3 Bagging: 15.3 cm × 55 cm low-pressure polyethylene plastic bags are usually used, and each bagging machine needs 7 people. During bagging, the following requirements should be paid attention to: ① the mixed materials should be filled within 4 hours, so as to avoid the fermentation and acid change of culture materials; ② the packed materials should be dense and not soft; ③ the bagging should not be broken, dropped or kneaded (4) check the packed bags one by one, and paste them with transparent tape immediately if any breach or micropore is found. In the use of mechanical equipment, roof operation, transportation and other aspects, attention should be paid to personal safety to avoid personal injury.
2.4.4 sterilization: the normal pressure steam boiler is adopted to sterilize completely when the temperature of the bottom bag reaches 100 ℃ and lasts for more than 20 hours. The suitable sterilization amount for each boiler is 5000 bags. The following points are required during sterilization: ① put the packed bacteria bags into the pot in time and place them reasonably. ② The material temperature should reach 100 ℃ with the fastest time, usually no more than 8 hours; during sterilization, it is necessary to watch the fire frequently, add coal in time, and add water frequently to prevent dry pot; watch the temperature frequently to prevent temperature drop. ③ When burning a fire, it is necessary to make a strong attack on the head, protect the middle and thoroughly afterwards.
2.4.5 cooling out of the pot: after the sterilized bags are checked for holes, they are transported to the inoculation room for cooling.
2.4.6 inoculation: the temperature in the rod material to be inoculated must be lower than 20 ℃, and the temperature in the inoculation space should be within the range of 5 ~ 15 ℃.
(1) Inoculation equipment and treatment: the drilling rod, strain and the plastic box containing the strain should be cleaned with 1 ‰ potassium permanganate in advance, and the aging strain in the inoculation point should be removed. The drilling rod and plastic box should be cleaned and disinfected with 1 ‰ potassium permanganate in advance.
(2) Environmental disinfection: at present, the space disinfectant used in production is aerosol disinfection box, and the basic dosage is 4 ~ 6G per cubic meter space. Take out the disinfectant from the disinfection box and put it in a heat-resistant and non combustible iron basin or bucket or tile pot. Light it with fire until the disinfectant releases smoke, and leave the inoculation room or inoculation account quickly, and pay attention to close the inoculation room or inoculation account. After inoculating, the throat of the inoculated person was not suitable to be inoculated in the space of the throat.
(3) Vaccination personnel: vaccination personnel are required to wear pre disinfected clothes, preferably special vaccination clothing, and equipped with medical rubber gloves and gas mask. Vaccination personnel are usually 5 people in a group, division of labor operation: one person drilling, three people inoculating, one person placing bags.
(4) Inoculation requirements: the amount of inoculation at a time should not exceed 3000 bags. The shorter the inoculation time, the better (usually no more than 3 hours). The inoculation operators should cooperate closely, act quickly and master the key points: the strains should be connected into the bacteria pits in the shortest time, and the strains should be cone-shaped blocks, so as to minimize the exposure time of the bacteria pits in the air and reduce the space The contamination was caused by bacteria.
2.4.7 germinating Management: the main task of germinating period management is to create suitable living conditions to accelerate the germination, colonization and spread growth of hyphae. The whole bag will grow in 50-70 days, and the color will turn to a certain extent, laying the foundation for mushroom production.
(1) Condition control of culture room: the temperature of culture room should be controlled by bag temperature, the temperature of bag should be controlled at 10 ~ 15 ℃, the mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus grows fast and robust. The air relative humidity should be controlled at 60% ~ 70%; attention should be paid to ventilation and ventilation to keep the indoor air fresh with sufficient oxygen; bacteria can occur in dark light and the mycelium is white and vigorous. The bacteria bags were stacked in a "well" shape in the culture room.
(2) Management measures: in the whole process of mycelial growth and development of Pleurotus ostreatus, the characteristics of different stages are different. The time occupied by each stage, colony morphology and physiological characteristics are different, so the management should be carried out according to the characteristics of each period. Pay close attention to the temperature change of the compost,
Stack shifting ventilation should be carried out in time. If necessary, draft tube and skylight should be installed on the roof of the shed or sunshade net should be installed outside the shed. At the same time, the plastic on both sides of the shed should be opened to ventilate to prevent the phenomenon of fungus burning caused by high temperature.
① Mycelium germination and colonization period: adjust indoor temperature 10 ~ 15 ℃, air relative humidity about 60%, combined with ventilation management. Try to keep the bacteria at constant temperature. Check and turn the stack every 7-10 days. Once the bacteria bag is found, it should be prevented and treated in time.
② Mycelial growth and spreading period: after the mycelium germinates and colonizes, it enters the vigorous growth period, the temperature is suitable, and the fastest growth is 3-5 mm per day. Adjust the indoor temperature 15 ~ 20 ℃, strengthen the indoor ventilation management. During the germinating period, we can prick holes and increase oxygen according to the mycelium growth. In the whole germinating period, the second needling is usually adopted. When the mycelium grows to 5 ~ 8 cm in diameter, 6 ~ 12 holes are punctured at 2 cm inward from the outer edge of the mycelium, and the hole depth is 1 ~ 1.5 cm. When the mycelium is full or basically full, each bag is used If the moisture content of the rod is low or the quality is too light, it can be appropriate to reduce or not prick holes.
(3) Management of germinal maturation period: when the fungus bag is full of white and light yellow membrane, it indicates that it has reached physiological maturity and entered the stage of color transformation and ripening, which takes about 30-40 days. The quality of mushroom bag will directly affect the output and quality of (www.novmv. Com).
(4) Summer management: in July and August, when the high temperature season comes, the mushroom has generally formed a yellowish brown waxy layer. The rod is elastic, and its resistance to adverse environment is enhanced. However, if the temperature exceeds 30 ℃, the mycelium in the rod will grow or die due to high temperature and insufficient oxygen supply. Therefore, in this stage, the shading degree should be strengthened and the ventilation should be carried out day and night. Besides opening the skylight or pulling out the air duct, shading net or water spraying cooling facilities should be installed on the roof of the shed. In addition, insect proof nets should be installed at all vents to prevent adults from flying in or larvae from harming. Insect traps should be hung in the shed.
2.4.8 mushroom production management: in mid August, the temperature was stable at about 20 ℃, and the mycelium had grown all over the culture bag and gradually turned to light yellow, which had reached physiological maturity and could be used for mushroom management. There are two types of stacking.
(1) Shelf type mushroom production: the mushroom shed is the same as that of the shelf type Lentinus edodes. Cut off 2 / 3 of the plastic on the top of the mushroom bag and put it on the shelf in a single layer. The water content of the bag can reach 70% ~ 75%, and the air humidity in the shed can reach 85% ~ 90%. The mushroom bud can appear in 15 ~ 20 days.
(2) Stacking mushroom: use sterilized knife to cut open both ends of the bag to expose the culture medium. Place the bag into a "well" shape, with 2 or 4 bags per layer, and the stack height is no more than 1 meter. After 24 hours, water spraying management can be carried out. It is necessary to use the rotary nozzle to water, make the moisture content of the fungus bag reach 70% ~ 75%, increase the air humidity in the shed to 85% ~ 90%, and the mushroom bud can appear in 15 ~ 20 days. In addition, the ventilation in the shed should be strengthened to meet the growth needs of fruiting bodies. It is required to disinfect the ground and trellis in the shed with lime before opening the bags. Insect proof nets should be installed outside the shed. Black light lamps and yellow boards should be installed inside the shed. Regular ventilation should be carried out to prevent diseases and insect pests. It is strictly forbidden to use any pesticide.
2.4.9 harvesting: when the mushroom body matures (according to the purchase standard), water should be cut off in time. It is appropriate to harvest without leaving the Mushroom Stalk on the culture material and damaging the mushroom bag. After the first stubble mushroom is harvested, the water supply on the mushroom stick is restored and nutrients are accumulated. The moisture content of the mushroom bag reaches 70% and the air relative humidity reaches 85%. Strengthen ventilation and enlarge the temperature difference to promote the formation of the second tide mushroom.
3. Pest control of Pleurotus ostreatus
3.1 control principle: the principle of "prevention first and comprehensive control" shall be adopted for the prevention and control of common diseases and insect pests.
3.2 common diseases and control
3.2.1 common diseases: mainly Trichoderma viride, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Monascus, myxomyces flavescens, walnut flesh mold and other molds.
3.2.2 preventive measures: ① do a good job in environmental sanitation, and disinfect mushroom shed, ground, tools and appliances. ② Strictly prevent the culture materials from carrying bacteria. It must be completely sterilized and inoculated under sterile conditions. The inoculation must be carried out under low temperature and sterile conditions. The culture temperature should not exceed 25 ℃ and ventilation should be strengthened. ③ The strains should be of good age with strong vitality. All degenerated, aged and contaminated species should be eliminated. ④ In the culture material, wheat bran, gypsum and other nutrients should be added according to the proportion. ⑤ When the disease area is more than 2 / 3 and serious, it can be buried or fermented to produce grass rot fungus.
3.3 common pests and control
3.3.1 common pests: mainly mushroom fly and mushroom mosquito.
3.3.2 prevention and control measures: ① do a good job in environmental hygiene, timely remove the mushroom roots, rotten mushrooms and waste materials, and keep away from the mushroom shed. ② The doors and windows of mushroom sheds should be equipped with insect proof nets to prevent adults from flying in and eliminate the source of insects. ③ Lime powder is often sprinkled in mushroom shed to sterilize and kill insects. ④ After taking out the mushroom, only biological agents can be used or black light lamp, yellow board, insect net and fly killing lamp can be used to trap and kill insects.
3.4 salting technology of Pleurotus ostreatus
3.4.1 grading: according to the quality and specification of enterprise acquisition, the aged roots must be removed, and the roots removed must be neat. At the same time, the mushrooms of different specifications should be separated separately and should not be mixed together (grading should be clear).
3.4.2 cleaning: wash the sundries (culture medium, leaves, etc.) carried by Pleurotus ostreatus with clear water, and then put them on the bamboo sieve to control the excess water (clean it).
3.4.3 cyaniding: the purpose of cyaniding is to kill the mushroom tissue and facilitate the salt to enter. Put a small amount of Pleurotus ostreatus in 10% salt boiled water in batches, turn it gently with bamboo and wooden tools, and take it out after boiling for 2-3 minutes. It is appropriate to put the mushroom body into the water when it is just floating. The key point of this link is to cook thoroughly. If the mushroom body cells can not be killed, the salt can not enter the mushroom tissue, which will cause the mushroom body to rot, not easy to store, and reduce the proportion of finished products.
3.4.4 cooling: remove the sterilized Pleurotus ostreatus and put it in cold water for cooling. You can change the cold water several times. When the smooth mushroom body is completely cool (the standard is to tear the mushroom body by hand and put it on the eyelid to feel cool), take it out and put it on the sieve to control the moisture until it does not flow (cool it thoroughly).
(1) The first salting: the salt used for salinization conforms to the edible standard. Industrial salt or non iodized salt should not be used. The salt containers can be used in tanks, mushroom barrels, cement pools or digging pools on the idle land, and surrounded by plastic cloth. First, the bottom of the container is paved with 2 cm thick salt, and then mixed evenly according to the ratio of 1 kg of smooth mushroom and 0.5 kg of salt, and then put into the container. The top layer is sealed with salt, and there is no gap around. The salt is salted for 15-20 days.
(2) Second salting: the purpose of the second salinization is to further improve the effect of salinization for storage. In addition, prepare the container, put 2 cm thick salt on the bottom layer, and still use the method of one layer of mushroom and one layer of salt for salting, and pick out the mushrooms that do not meet the specifications. If all the salt mixed for the first time is dissolved, add 15% salt by weight, and the others are the same as the first time. After 15 ~ 20 days, the packing can be started. The two salt periods should reach 35-40 days (the key point of this link is to have enough salt and enough salt period).
3.4.6 sub packaging
(1) Boil saturated salt water before packing: put salt into purified water, heat and add salt while stirring until the salt can't be dissolved. Measure it with Baume hydrometer to reach 20 ~ 23 degrees, and then cool it for use.
(2) Separate packing: take out the salted smooth mushroom, wash it in saturated salt water, put it in the prepared container, add saturated salt water, so that the mushroom body can not be seen. Add 3-4 2 kg salt bags to each container. If the mushroom body is exposed on the surface of salt water, cover the container with bamboo sieve or bamboo slice, and press it with stone or other heavy objects (the key point of this link is to have enough saturated salt water, which is conducive to increasing the weight of finished products and prolonging the shelf life).
3.4.7 storage: keep the salted mushrooms in the shade shed or warehouse, not in the open field, which is conducive to long-term storage. The key points of salting pithy formula: clear in classification, clean in cleaning, transparent in cyaniding, sufficient in salt quantity, enough in salinity, enough in salt period, sufficient in brine, stored for sale, strictly controlled by purchasing, and carefully selected after deep processing. In a flash, it is necessary to add more salt to cool it. The salt period should be 40 days, and the salt water should be 32. Storage and standby to sell, to ensure the benefit is not difficult.
Nutrition analysis of Pleurotus ostreatus: Pleurotus ostreatus is not only delicious and nutritious, but also a kind of nucleic acid attached to the surface of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is beneficial to maintain human energy and brain power, and has the effect of inhibiting tumor.
Pleurotus ostreatus contains crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin B, vitamin C, nicotinic acid and other amino acids necessary for human body. Pleurotus ostreatus is suitable for people: most people can eat it.