High yield cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus in bags
1. Select a good cultivar. High yield is the key to success. The selection of varieties should be determined according to the needs of market consumers, their own cultivation technology level and local natural environment conditions, and no variety recommendation is made here. Generally, two or three local varieties with wide temperature, fast tide turning, strong stress resistance and good performance of varieties should be selected to match with one or two new varieties to avoid the risk of single variety. In particular, it is necessary to point out that the newly introduced strains should go through three steps of experiment, demonstration and promotion, and it is important to remember that they should not be introduced blindly to cause losses. Attention must be paid to the use of age-appropriate strains, to avoid the production of strains and bagging connection is not up, rather materials such as seeds can not be planted.
2. Grasp the cultivation season. Cultivation and cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus plant Crops are also required to be cultivated at suitable time. At present, natural temperature is mainly used for autumn, winter and spring cultivation. Although it can be cultivated in high temperature season (June, July and August), it has serious diseases and insect pests, low yield, and must be cultivated with clinker to increase investment and production cost. In the production of Central Plains, autumn planting is the most important. At the same time, we should consider missing the peak period of cultivation for about half a month. We should also miss the peak period of mushroom production in the first month after the Spring Festival. Because of the low purchasing power of the market due to the government and school holidays at this time, a large number of products on the market will cause the situation that mushrooms are cheap and harm the farmers.
3. Scientific selection of raw materials and cultivation bags. As we all know, cottonseed hull is the preferred raw material for cultivation of most edible fungi. In the spring of 2019, the purchase price of cottonseed hull has reached 2500 yuan / ton. Many mushroom farmers try to use crop straw (corn cob, corn straw, soybean straw, wheat straw, etc.) to replace cottonseed hull successfully, and the yield is basically equivalent to that of cottonseed hull. The Central Plains region is the main production area of wheat and corn. Mushroom farmers should purchase and collect raw and auxiliary materials when the price is low. The main material (crop straw) should be exposed, crushed and stored. The auxiliary materials should be collected in the same year. The requirements are dry, mildew free and insect free fresh raw materials, especially the bran.
The results show that the best choice for the fungus bag is high density and low pressure polyethylene, which has low cost, strong tensile force, and is not easy to swell or rot, with 300-600 pieces per kg (different specifications). According to different time and season, we should choose the appropriate size of mushroom bag: in late summer and early autumn, we should use (20-22) cm × (40-45) cm, autumn planting (24-25) cm × (45-50) cm, late autumn and early winter use (25-26) cm × (50-52) cm, and winter season (25-28) cm × (50-55) cm.
4. The mushroom shed was built simply because of its rudeness. (www.com). According to the amount of raw materials, we should make full use of all the available conditions in rural areas. There is no straw curtain to spread corn stalk, wheat straw and other simple materials. This kind of mushroom house and shed disinfection is simple, as long as there is lime, sulfur, carbendazim, phoxim, dimethoate. In addition, the rotation of 2-3 years in the field can hardly cause diseases and insect pests, which is economical and practical. If the mushroom farmers' own conditions permit, it is better to build standard mushroom houses or mushroom sheds. In this way, batch feeding, large-scale production and achieving scale benefits are the best choice.
5. Sterilization of culture material should be thorough. Sterilization is the key technology for high yield and high efficiency of off season bag planting Pleurotus ostreatus. The following points should be paid attention to thoroughly sterilize: ① the fire should be fierce. It is better to make the temperature in the oven reach 100 ℃ within 2-4 hours, then keep it for 10-14 hours, and then close it with waste heat for more than 8 hours. ② The charge in the stove should not be too full and the bags should not be too tight. There should be a gap for the steam to flow smoothly. ③ The heat preservation performance is good. The sterilization room should be well sealed, the inner wall should be smooth without burr, and the cracks should be made up in time. ④ It is necessary to set up hot water supply system and make up water by preheating. ⑤ Bagging should be moderate and the internal code of steamer should be standardized. Generally, the disc type stack or well shaped arrangement should be adopted. It's not easy to put the bacteria in the steel bag because it is too short to be packed in the wooden bag.
6. Scientific picking and marketing. Most of the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus are sold on the market. The quality of fresh mushrooms is directly proportional to the selling price. The quality of Pleurotus ostreatus depends on the time of picking, and the economic efficiency depends on the market situation. We can adjust it from the following aspects: 1) when the fruiting body of Pleurotus ostreatus is mature, it should be picked in time, and it gives people the feeling of fresh and tender when it is sold. ② The picking time should be estimated as well as the transportation time. The fresh mushrooms should reach the wholesale market after 2-3 hours. ③ It is flexible and changeable. According to different consumption objects, different grades of mushrooms were picked. The high-end consumers in hotels generally pay attention to the small mushrooms, long stalks, fresh and tender, and willing to pay high prices; the wage earners require good taste and dark color, and the mushroom slices should not be too large or too small; the ordinary citizens and the common people should eat green food to eat healthy, short handle and thick meat, which is the largest consumer group. ④ Through bagging time and environmental regulation to adjust the amount of mushrooms per day, on the basis of balanced picking, the growth of mushrooms was limited by market prices or temperature reduction. ⑤ When selling, we should combine wholesale and retail, keep abreast of the market situation, and can't completely rely on the peddlers.