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Functions and uses of Cassava

Time: August 17, 2020 Number of hits:

Functions and uses of Cassava

Pianhua 1 (Preview): pay attention to farmers' production in four seasons and teach them the ability to get rich. Here is the morning bus from 4:30 to 4:55 every morning. The main contents for you today are:

Function and function of Cassava

Introduction: Good morning, audience friends. Welcome to today's "get rich early bus". I'm Yang Lin. Cassava is known as "the king of starch". Although it is known as the world's three major types of potato with potato and sweet potato, people know little about it compared with potato and sweet potato. Cassava can be said to be full of treasure, cassava leaves can be fed to fish, silkworm; cassava root contains rich starch, can be used as food, feed and industrial raw materials. Especially in the promotion of low-carbon environmental protection today, with the development and utilization of biomass energy, cassava has become one of the important bioenergy crops. The fuel ethanol produced from cassava is known as the renewable environmental protection "green gasoline". So, what exactly is cassava, what are its functions and uses, and why is it a treasure all over the body? In today's rich early bus, we will take you a comprehensive understanding of the functions and uses of cassava.

Pianhua 2 (male voice): This is the voice of China morning bus of China Central People's broadcasting station

What is cassava

 Functions and uses of Cassava

Experts answer

Background introduction: cassava is native to tropical America and widely cultivated in tropical regions of the world. Its root tubers are edible, can grind cassava powder, make bread, provide cassava starch and starch for sizing and even alcoholic drinks. Cassava may have been the first cultivated by the Mayans of yugatun, Mexico. Most varieties contain carbohydrate derivatives that can produce cyanide, and the primitive people would use complex processes such as friction, pressing and heating to detoxify. Cassava is easily mutated, so it may be a hybrid. It's a perennial. The leaves are palmately divided, with 5 or 9 lobes, similar to castor leaves, but deeper. The root is fleshy, like dahlia. There are many varieties, including small low herbaceous plants, slightly larger MULTI BRANCHED shrubs with a height of 1 m (3 ft) and small trees up to 5 m high. Some varieties are suitable for dry alkaline soils, while others are suitable for acid mudflats along river banks. About 160 species of cassava are sunshine loving plants native to tropical America.

Cassava has strong adaptability, drought tolerance and barren tolerance. It can be planted in mountainous and plain areas where the annual average temperature is above 18 ℃ and the frost free period is more than 8 months; the rainfall is 600-6000 mm, the altitude of tropical and subtropical zone is less than 2000 m, and the soil pH is 3.8-8.0. It is most suitable to grow at the annual average temperature of 27 ℃, the daily average temperature difference of 6-7 ℃, and the annual rainfall of 1000-2000 The soil was well distributed, pH 6.0-7.5, sunny, deep and well drained.

Cassava originated in tropical America and is widely cultivated in tropical and some subtropical areas, mainly distributed in Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Bolivia, Thailand, Colombia, Indonesia and other countries. Introduced and cultivated in 1920s in China, it is now widely distributed in South China. Guangdong and Guangxi have the largest cultivation area, followed by Fujian and Taiwan. Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hunan, Jiangxi and other provinces also have a small amount of cultivation.

Pianhua 2 (male voice): This is the voice of China morning bus of China Central People's broadcasting station

What are the uses of cassava?

Experts answer

Background: cassava is mainly used for food, feed and industrial development and utilization.

Root tuber starch is one of the main starch raw materials in industry. 65% of the world's total cassava production is used for human food, which is the main food crop for low-income farmers in tropical wetlands. As raw materials for feed production, cassava coarse powder and leaves are high energy feed ingredients. In the fermentation industry, cassava starch or dry chips can be used to produce alcohol, citric acid, glutamic acid, lysine, cassava protein, glucose, fructose, etc. these products have important uses in food, beverage, medicine, textile (cloth dyeing), papermaking, etc. It is mainly used for feed and starch extraction in China.

Cassava is one of the world's three major potato categories (cassava, sweet potato, potato). There are more than 100 species of cassava. Cassava is the only one used for economic cultivation. The others are wild species.

The annual trade volume of cassava accounts for about 10% of the total output, and the main products are dry chips [HTTPS: / / www.nczfj. COM /], granules and cassava starch. China, Japan, the United States and other countries are the main importing countries of cassava products in the world, accounting for about 70-80% of the total trade volume. Thailand is the world's largest exporter of cassava products, while Indonesia and Vietnam are the other major exporters.

Pianhua 2 (male voice): This is the voice of China morning bus of China Central People's broadcasting station

Edible method of Cassava

Experts answer

Background introduction: Mechanism: Although cassava tuber is rich in starch, it contains toxic substances in all parts of the whole plant, including root, stem and leaf, and the fresh tuber is more toxic. Therefore, when eating cassava root tuber, we must pay attention to it. The toxic substance contained in cassava is linolein. If you eat raw or uncooked cassava or drink its soup, it may cause poisoning.

The cause of poisoning is that the ingested cassava releases hydrocyanic acid after hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. Hydrocyanic acid is absorbed by the intestinal tract and enters the human blood. It can combine with the cytochrome oxidase of cells. Although red blood cells can still carry oxygen to various tissues of the body, tissue cells can not use oxygen, resulting in asphyxia in cells and severe hypoxia in the body. At the same time, hydrocyanic acid itself may damage the respiratory center and motor center. Therefore, after poisoning, there will be nausea, vomiting, dizziness, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, facial fear and other symptoms.

Detoxification method: to prevent cassava poisoning, peel the cassava before eating, soak the flesh with water, and dissolve cyanoside. Then heat and cook, ready to serve.

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Cassava as feed

Experts answer

Knowledge expansion: cassava residue as feed for pigs

1、 Storage of cassava residue:

First build a storage tank and build a large pool with bricks. The surrounding and bottom of the pool should be sealed with cement slurry to prevent water leakage. The size of the pool should be suitable for storing cassava residue for one year. The cassava residue is filled into the pool, compacted and flattened, and the surface of cassava residue is covered with fresh water to isolate the air. In the future, it takes time to evaporate the cassava residue. Water should be added at any time. In this way, the cassava residue will not deteriorate after being stored for one year.

2、 The fermentation of cassava residue was as follows

Fermentation method (pure cassava residue fermentation): take a package of active 99 yeast, dissolve in about 60 kg of water, use to stir about 500 kg of cassava residue, and then put it into a plastic bucket, cover it with plastic film, tie it with rope, ferment for 2-3 days in hot days, and ferment for 15-20 days in cold days. It has a mellow aroma of sweet wine and can be used to feed pigs.

The active 99 yeast is a probiotic preparation. One gram of product contains about 4 billion live bacteria. Cassava dregs can produce a variety of digestive enzymes, vitamins and amino acids after fermentation by the enzyme, which can improve the feed utilization rate. It can also prevent piglet bacterial diarrhea and reduce fecal odor. When feeding, 20% fermented cassava residue and 80% corn, soybean meal and wheat bran were used to make up for the low protein content of cassava residue. When feeding, 50% of the fermented cassava residue and 50% of the mixed feed could be used to approximate the growth rate of the whole feed. Using cassava residue as feed for pigs, the cost of each pig can be reduced by 50-60 yuan.

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Industrial use of Cassava

Experts answer

Background: in today's world energy shortage, the development of alternative oil new energy is a trend in the world and a major strategy related to China's energy and economic security.

The reporter learned from Tianjin University that a technology developed by the petrochemical technology development center of Tianjin University was applied to the annual output of 200000 tons of cassava fuel ethanol device of COFCO biomass energy Co., Ltd., which can make cassava, a kind of perennial high-yield plant widely produced in southern China, be converted into fuel ethanol through processing, and use it as a green energy instead of gasoline, which reveals China's inheritance Rice and other food crops as raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol, the prelude to the production of fuel ethanol with non food crops. "Cassava" has become a hot renewable green energy.

It is reported that biomass energy is the energy stored in biomass through the photosynthesis of green plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria, which is the organic storage of solar energy. Among all the biomass energy, the most mature technology, the largest promotion and the most promising product is biofuel ethanol. The test results show that the proportion of CH and CO in gasoline can be reduced by 10.4% and 13.8% respectively.

In 2007, the world's fuel ethanol production reached nearly 40 million tons. China attaches great importance to the promotion of the use of ethanol gasoline for vehicles. In April 2001, two mandatory national standards, denatured fuel ethanol and automotive ethanol gasoline, were issued. In 2008, China produced about 1.53 million tons of fuel ethanol products, and ethanol gasoline consumption accounted for about 20% of the national gasoline consumption. At present, China has become the third largest biofuel ethanol producer and application country in the world.

With the rapid development of fuel ethanol industry in the world, the consumption and price of corn and other crops are increasing day by day. Grain raw materials have become the bottleneck restricting the further development of fuel ethanol industry. The development of "non grain" bioethanol has become the development trend of bioethanol technology in the world.

The scientific research team led by Zhang Minhua, Professor of petrochemical center of Tianjin University, has carried out the research work of fuel ethanol raw material diversification, key process, large-scale equipment and process integration and strengthening for many years. After a series of scientific and technological research work, it has broken through the key technical problems restricting the development of China's fuel ethanol industry, and has achieved leapfrog development in technological innovation Cassava fuel ethanol technology with independent intellectual property rights. At present, the achievements have applied for 12 national patents, 9 have been authorized, and formed a number of proprietary technologies; in 2008, "fuel ethanol production method" won the 10th China Patent Excellence Award; it provided comprehensive technical guidance for the construction and commissioning of production equipment, and made a comprehensive improvement of cassava fuel ethanol production technology level, construction and development of China's non grain fuel ethanol industry He made an important contribution.

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