High ridge double row potato in South China Planting technology [nongguang Tiandi]
High ridge double row potato in South China Planting technology [nongguang Tiandi] video from CCTV nongguang Tiandi
[nongguang Tiandi] high ridge double row potato in South China Planting technology （20140303）：
Potato planting technology With the rapid development of potato, high ridge and double row in southern China plant Technology is constantly explored through production practice. In addition, the technology of double row high potato can greatly improve the yield of Southern potato. This film mainly introduces the high ridge and double row technology of Southern potato to the audience plant Technology has a more comprehensive understanding.
The conventional cross breeding of potato is an indispensable and important means in the breeding of new potato varieties. In order to improve the breeding effect, the cultivation of seedling and early generation selection is the key technology. The results showed that the survival rate of transplanting was high by transplanting the seedlings into the field with soil after the seedlings were raised in the nutrient pot greenhouse. The seedling generation could be preliminarily selected for disease resistance, maturity, tuber characteristics and tuber setting habits, but the selection effect of yield, commodity rate and quality traits in seedling was limited, so it should be selected in the non sexual generation. The development of biotechnology has improved the methods and means of potato breeding to a certain extent, but the conventional breeding is still the only way for the performance of target genes and target traits in new varieties. Potato cross breeding is based on the parents' good traits to produce a certain variation population, through many years of identification and selection to obtain one of the excellent lines in ten thousand. Its hybrid progenies are only separated in the sexual stage, that is, the hybrid seedling (F1) generation, and the subsequent clone generations are just the types needed for continuous selection and identification in the same variant population. Therefore, it is of great significance to improve the breeding technology of hybrid seedlings and the selection efficiency of early generations for the selection of hybrid offspring. In the past, it was difficult to breed potato by direct seeding in the open field, which resulted in the low effect of cross seedling breeding. Through the popularization and application of modern facility agriculture and the improvement of seed dormancy breaking technology, at present, in production, seedlings are generally transplanted to the field after seedling cultivation in greenhouse or net shed, which improves the seedling cultivation technology, provides rich potato population for asexual generation identification and selection, and lays a foundation for improving the efficiency of early generation selection in potato cross breeding. 1、 Population size of hybrid seedlings
The characteristics of high heterozygosity and tetrasomic inheritance of potato require that hybrid progenies have enough large population to produce rich variation types. However, due to the constraints of human, material and financial resources, the breeding units can not meet the objective requirements of large population. Therefore, for distant hybridization with obvious heterosis, the hybrid population should be expanded as much as possible to ensure that there are abundant variation types in the offspring In the cross combination, the population number should be reduced appropriately to avoid the same variation type and reduce the workload of asexual generation selection. According to the breeding conditions, 12000-15000 seedlings were cultivated every year, including 20-30 cross combinations, 300-600 seedlings per combination. 2、 Seedling cultivation 1. Seed germination. Potato seeds generally have a dormancy period of about 6 months, so seeds stored for more than one year can be directly used for germination. Seeds stored for more than half a year but less than one year can be soaked in 1000 mg / L gibberellin solution for 24 hours to break the dormancy before germination. Put filter paper on the 10 cm Petri dish, drop water to make the filter paper fully absorb water, scatter the treated seeds evenly on the wet filter paper according to the combination, mark them, and put them into the incubator at 20 ℃ for germination. Observe daily, drop water along the edge of the dish and keep the filter paper moist. 2. Prepare the culture container. Vermiculite mixed with decomposed sheep dung was put into a 10 cm plastic nutrition Cup. The bottom of vermiculite was compacted and easy to move. The upper part was slightly loose, which was conducive to the growth of seedlings. In order to facilitate the transfer and management, vermiculite nutrition Cup is filled with culture plate, each plate contains 100. Finally, the nutrition tray should be placed on the support of greenhouse and watered one day before sowing to ensure that vermiculite is moist when sowing. 3. Seed on demand. The sowing time is usually in the late March. The seeds germinated in the nutrition Cup with tweezers, then covered with moist vermiculite, placed in combination and marked. After all the seeding is finished, the culture plate is covered with plastic film to ensure the temperature and humidity required for the seeds to take root and sprout. 4. Seedling management. Generally, the film is uncovered once a week and sprinkled with water in a sprinkling pot. On sunny days, the greenhouse windows were opened at noon to dissipate heat. The plastic film around the seedling tray was lifted and timely ventilation was conducted. In the evening, the window was closed by covering the film to keep the temperature. When the seedlings are basically complete and grow to 3-4 leaves, remove the plastic film to facilitate the strong seedlings. Spray water every other day to ensure the moisture of vermiculite without waterlogging, and remove weeds at the same time. When the sun is strong, it is necessary to open the shade net to avoid burning the seedlings. When the seedlings grow to 6-7 leaves, they are transferred to the outdoor for cultivation and transplanting. 3、 1. Soil preparation and fertilization. During the seedling period, according to the number of seedlings and planting density, the plot with loose soil, rich organic matter and convenient drainage and irrigation should be selected. When the soil is dry enough to be cultivated, 450 kg / ha potato special fertilizer, 225 kg / ha diammonium and 150 kg / ha urea are applied as base fertilizer, and phoxim 3 kg / HA is mixed with fine soil and 300 kg / ha soil is sprayed to control underground pests, and then the field is turned over and leveled. 2. Field planting and management. The seedlings were prepared to be transplanted after one week outdoor tempering, and the seedlings were watered thoroughly before transplanting, so as to take seedlings with soil during transplanting and prevent root damage. The planting density was 70 cm row spacing and 30 cm plant spacing. When planting seedlings, dig a pit with a depth slightly greater than the height of nutrient cup per plant spacing, tear off the plastic cup, put the seedling with soil into the pit, and surround with soil. When transplanting, the big and small seedlings should be separated, and the seedlings with the same height should be planted together. After planting, the roots should be watered to improve the survival rate of transplanting. There was no natural precipitation within one week after planting, so it was necessary to water artificially to resist drought and protect seedlings. After 20 days of planting, irrigation, weeding and soil cultivation were carried out. According to the growth of seedlings, fertilizer and irrigation were applied at flowering stage, and weeding and soil cultivation were carried out. During the growth of seedling, only spraying insecticide 2 ~ 3 times to control aphids, no preventive measures were taken, and the diseased plants were removed in time. 3. Harvest in time. The mature stage of seedlings varied [source: www.nczfj.com /], and the field observation showed that the mature seedlings were harvested immediately. During harvest, except for early maturing plants and plants with outstanding visual performance of comprehensive characters, the rest were mixed according to combinations. 4、 The early generation selection in potato cross breeding refers to the selection of seedling generation or asexual generation. The effectiveness of early generation selection is different because of different combinations and genetic basis. It has been proved that most of the early generation selection is effective in the selection of disease resistance, maturity, tuber characteristics and tuber setting habits of seedling, but the selection effect on yield, commodity rate and quality traits is limited, so it should be selected in the asexual generation. 1. Disease resistance. The disease resistance of seedling is stable, that is to say, when seedling is resistant to disease, its clone is also resistant to disease. Therefore, in disease resistant breeding, disease resistant strain can be identified by inoculation of pathogen in seedling generation. 2. Maturity. The growth period of seedling and asexual generation are basically the same, that is, the seedling generation is precocious, and the clone is also precocious. Early maturing lines can be selected according to the agronomic characters of the seedlings. 3. Tuber characteristics and tuber setting habit. The tuber shape, bud eye depth, skin color and tuber setting habit were positively correlated with their clones. Therefore, the tuber appearance traits could be preliminarily selected in seedling generation. 4. Output. The growth period of the seedling generation is longer than that of the asexual generation, and the yield level can not be brought into full play. Therefore, the selection and elimination according to the yield per plant in the seedling stage may cause the loss of some genotypes with yield potential. Therefore, the whole tuber family should be retained as far as possible without yield selection for seedling generation. 5. Quality traits. The results showed that the selection of quality traits of seedling was effective, but not the most suitable period, and the selection of asexual generation should be focused.
Aphids not only cause direct losses in the field, but also cause more indirect losses by spreading viruses. Comprehensive measures should be taken to control aphids. ① The optimum temperature for Myzus persicae to eat was 23 ℃. The highest temperature for virus transmission was 25 ℃. In the cold condition, the reproduction rate is slow. Under 15 ℃, the take-off ability of Myzus persicae was greatly reduced. ② In order to avoid aphid infestation, early spring sowing (using the sunny border or plastic greenhouse in early spring), killing seedlings in advance when the peak of aphid occurrence is coming, and sowing in autumn can be used to avoid aphid damage. Especially the seed tuber. In addition, intercropping or Intercropping of aphid avoiding crops and potato can be adopted. ③ Chemical control.