winter Wheat planting technology Management method of Winter Wheat Seedling Stage
winter Wheat planting technology Winter wheat seedling management method [nongguangtiandi] video from CCTV nongguangtiandi
[nongguang Tiandi] winter wheat seedling management (20131120)
From the point of view of cultivation, the process of the formation of organs and the characteristics of growth and development of winter wheat can be divided into three stages: vegetative growth, vegetative and reproductive growth and reproductive growth. From seed germination to young spike differentiation, it is a vegetative growth stage centered on rooting, long leaves and tillering. The seedling stage of winter wheat belongs to the vegetative growth stage, and the growth of winter wheat directly affects the yield of winter wheat. Therefore, in order to achieve high yield and high quality, it is necessary to strengthen the management of winter wheat seedling stage. In this program, we will introduce some scientific management knowledge of wheat seedlings to the audience from the aspects of field management of wheat seedlings, control measures of vigorous winter wheat seedlings, weak seedling promotion measures and wheat field pest control.
1. Causes of vigorous growth of Winter Wheat
1.1 the proportion of soil fertilization is unreasonable
In the process of the growth and development of winter wheat, the balanced supply of soil fertilizer nutrition is the basis for the stable growth of winter wheat. However, in reality, due to the blindness of farmers in the application of soil fertilizer, they can not scientifically balance fertilization according to local conditions, resulting in excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer and unreasonable supply of phosphorus and potassium, which easily leads to the early growth of winter wheat.
1.2 increasing the sowing quantity blindly, too many basic seedlings
By tradition plant Under the influence of the thought, the situation of large sowing quantity and high density still exists in a large range. In addition, there is no good grasp of the appropriate sowing time, resulting in the early sowing time of winter wheat, too much sowing amount and population density, which is one of the main reasons for the vigorous growth of Winter Wheat in the early stage.
1.3 influence of abnormal climate factors
In recent years, the abnormal climate in winter and spring has a great impact on the vigorous growth of Winter Wheat in the middle and early stages, mainly in the following two aspects: first, due to the appearance of warm winter in recent years, the temperature in winter is higher; second, in recent years, too much rain in winter and spring, good soil moisture, which is conducive to the growth of winter wheat, high temperature and excessive soil moisture can accelerate the growth of winter wheat The growth and development process of winter wheat caused the vigorous growth of winter wheat.
2. Countermeasures to control the vigorous growth of Winter Wheat
In order to ensure the stable growth and development of winter wheat, prevent excessive growth in the middle and early stages, and lay a good foundation for the later high yield, the following measures should be taken before and during sowing:
2.1 control measures before and during sowing
(1) According to the field test results and soil fertility status, scientific and reasonable fertilization should be done. According to the fertilizer requirement rules in the growth and development of winter wheat, coordinate the relationship of N, P, K in the growth and development of winter wheat, ensure that N, P, K fertilizer can be continuously and steadily supplied, meet the needs of various nutrient elements in different growth stages of winter wheat, and put an end to the bombardment of nitrogen fertilizer.
(2) According to the condition of soil preparation and soil moisture, appropriate sowing time should be adopted, and a small amount of seed should be sown as much as possible. The number of basic seedlings should be controlled in a reasonable range to avoid excessive population growth.
(3) Plant growth regulators, such as ketamine, can be used to treat seeds. Generally, 20-40 ml of 25% ketamine is used for every 50 kg of seeds, and the seeds are treated with other insecticides before sowing.
2.2 control measures before jointing period
In addition to controlling the management of fertilizer and water at the rising stage, the following measures can be taken before the jointing stage for the wheat fields with strong growth or large population in the middle and early stage
(1) To suppress the wheat field of Wangchang. The main stem and large tiller stem of winter wheat can be damaged by wheat field compaction, and most of the nutrients flow to the main stem and large tiller, which is used to repair the damage caused by crushing, while the nutrient transported to small tillers is reduced. Therefore, the suppression of winter wheat can inhibit the growth of main stem and large tiller, make the middle tiller drive the main stem, make the field neat, speed up the death of small and medium-sized tillers, which is conducive to ventilation and light transmission in the field, and strive for strong stem and big stem. At the same time, the suppression of wheat field can also play a similar role with winter irrigation, which is conducive to stabilizing the soil and promoting the development of winter wheat roots to the direction of strong seedlings. The time arrangement for suppressing winter wheat is very important. It is usually carried out after the peak tillering period, when the tillers are polarized and the internodes are not pulled out of the ground. If it is suppressed too early, the tiller has not yet polarized, but it can promote the increase of tiller. If it is too late, the stem node will recover slowly and affect the growth of the stem. Generally, it can be suppressed once or twice. In the process of compaction, attention should be paid to the wet ground, so as to avoid soil hardening; in the morning and cloudy days, do not press to prevent the wheat seedling from high moisture content, brittle stems and leaves, and large loss after compaction. In addition, the seedlings should not be frozen and compacted.
(2) Deep ploughing controls the growth. Deep tillage can promote the development of root system, inhibit the growth of small tillers, and accelerate the process of polarization between main stem, large tiller and small tiller. It can not only inhibit the growth of tillers, make wheat feet clean and tidy, improve ventilation and light transmission conditions, but also promote the growth of node roots, which is beneficial to prevent lodging. In addition, according to the requirements of the purpose of deep tillage, the intertillage time can be determined according to the purpose of tillage. For example, the time of deep cultivation for the purpose of weeding should be before winter; the time of intertillage for drought prevention should be in the early stage of turning green; the time for combining cold prevention, temperature raising and frost resistance can be used for top ridge cultivation.
(3) Spraying at seedling stage has multiple effects. It can also control the lodging of wheat field. The internode length was increased and the internode length was inhibited. In addition, it can increase chlorophyll content, improve light energy utilization rate, increase photosynthesis and nutrient accumulation, and then reduce sterile spikelets and increase the number of grains. Spraying time should be carried out before the elongation of the first internode. In order to avoid negative effects, the time should not be too late. Within the suitable period, the desired effect can be achieved only once. The general dosage is 15% Paclobutrazol 600 ~ 750g / hm2. In order to prevent uneven height of wheat seedlings, spraying should be uniform, and no re spraying or missing spraying is allowed. There are some strong seedlings in the field. If the total number of stem seedlings is small, the growth of wheat seedlings is not vigorous, and there is no threat of lodging, no spraying is needed.
The causes and control methods of several abnormal seedlings of winter wheat were introduced
1、 Keloid seedling and erect needle seedling
Cause: poor sowing quality. If the sowing rate is too large, the machine does not walk unevenly or the ground preparation is not good before sowing, it is easy to form pimple seedlings; if the sowing depth is too deep and the seeding is seriously pressed when the seeding is suppressed, especially in the plot where the straw is crushed and returned to the field, the quality of straw crushing is poor or the soil is bright and dark, and there are many bumpy soil, so that the emergence of wheat seedling is blocked, and the vertical needle seedling will be formed. In addition, in order to prevent the wheat seedlings from freezing, it is easy to form needle seedlings when the wheat seedlings get up in spring. The leaf of erect needle seedling is few, wheat seedling grows thin, form not enough tiller. If it is caused by too deep sowing, if the soil layer is removed, it can be found that the stem in the ground is very long, which affects the development of wheat seedling.
Prevention and control methods: 1) before sowing, the suitable depth of general cultivated land is 20 ~ 25 cm, which should be loose on the plough layer and solid at the bottom, with sufficient soil moisture, fine and smooth ground, and no obvious bumps. ② In order to improve the sowing quality and grasp the suitable sowing depth, generally control it at 3 ~ 5cm, not too deep or too shallow, and the planting should be even. ③ The suitable sowing rate should be determined according to the soil fertility, variety and yield, and the germination test of wheat seed should be done well. ④ In order to make full use of soil fertility and light energy and make the individual grow healthily, soil should be removed as soon as possible for the bumpy seedlings and needle seedlings formed by planting too close and too deep. ⑤ Water the winter wheat in time. In order to make the weak seedlings strong, consolidate the tillers before winter and increase the tillers in spring, combined with the irrigation of frozen water and topdressing with chemical fertilizer, generally 15-20 kg urea is applied per 667 M2 (1 mu).
2、 Frozen seedlings
Causes: too late winter water or frozen water, so that it can not infiltrate, forming floating ice on the surface to cover the wheat seedlings and suffocate the winter wheat; excessive cooling range in winter, or sudden drop in temperature before winter, resulting in physiological death of wheat seedlings; in winter, there is more soil moisture, and the frozen soil layer lifts the soil and root together, and the root is pulled off and died; the surface of early spring When the soil melted, the lower layer was still frozen, and the leaves began to transpiration, but the roots could not absorb nutrients and water, which made the seedlings dry and hungry.
Control methods: 1. ② In order to cultivate strong seedlings, it is suitable to sow in late season and shallow sowing in proper time. ③ Timely winter irrigation. ④ Filling in winter. Before returning to green in severe winter, the wheat should be pressed twice to crush the rough soil, so that the soil is fine and compact, and the cracks are bridged, which is conducive to eliminating the hardening and cracking, preventing the soil from air leakage, heat preservation and moisture preservation, and cold resistance and seedling protection. ⑤ Cover with manure and soil to prevent cold and protect seedlings. After winter irrigation, cover soil about 2cm on the basis of loosening soil, which can stabilize ground temperature, reduce soil water evaporation, and ensure winter wheat overwintering with green.
3、 Yellow seedling
Causes: poor soil preparation quality, more light and dark rough, loose soil, poor root, leading to shrinking heart and yellow leaves of wheat seedlings; application of immature base fertilizer or excessive application of seed fertilizer, resulting in burn of seeds or seedlings; poor soil moisture, sowing too deep, making winter wheat seedlings thin and thin, thin and yellow leaves; wheat field with poor soil fertility sows too early, wheat seedlings are too vigorous, and no base fertilizer or topdressing is less than When the soil is short of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, especially when the phosphorus fertilizer is serious, the yellow leaves are small; the damage of underground pests and root rot forms yellow seedlings.
From emergence to jointing of winter wheat, as long as there are weak seedlings, small seedlings, yellow leaves, yellow heart and yellow tillers in the field, they belong to yellow seedlings.
Prevention and control methods: ① for the Yellow seedlings formed due to poor soil moisture or too deep sowing, bamboo harrow should be used to remove the topsoil, help the wheat seedlings to be unearthed, or clean up, so as to make the tiller node cover the soil shallower, so as to promote the growth of Wheat Seedlings. ② For the Yellow seedlings formed due to the soil being too sticky and heavy, the soil should be loosened in time and the soil moisture should be dispersed for ventilation. ③ For the soil lacking nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, the quick acting nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer should be applied as soon as possible in order to make the wheat seedling strong. ④ For the Yellow seedlings caused by the application of immature organic fertilizer or excessive application of seed fertilizer, the fertilizer effect should be diluted by watering immediately. ⑤ For the Yellow seedlings caused by underground pests and root rot, some technical measures can be taken to promote the transformation, such as intertillage, weeping and watering. If it is possible for yellow seedlings to continue to develop into dead seedlings, we should seize the time to check and replant the seedlings or transplant them to prevent the lack of seedlings and ridge cutting.
4、 Dead seedlings
The dead seedlings have dead heart, dead tillers and withered leaves.
Causes: poor soil preparation quality; too much or too little water for winter wheat; soil hardening and cracking, resulting in wheat seedling root cutting; excessive irrigation in winter, causing the ground water and freezing, suffocating the root system and tiller death; applying immature organic fertilizer or uneven fertilization to burn seedlings; sowing too early, wheat seedlings grow too fast; sudden low temperature in winter, wheat seedlings suffer from severe freezing; diseases and insect pests When the yellow and frozen seedlings are serious, they will die.
Prevention and control methods: 1) soil preparation before sowing, to achieve smooth surface, loose plough layer, straw crushing, uniform base fertilizer and good soil moisture. ② When watering, it is necessary to prevent excessive water to avoid seedling suffocation. ③ When applying organic fertilizer as base fertilizer, it is necessary to apply fully decomposed organic fertilizer and spread it evenly without leaving manure bottom. ④ Sowing should not be done too early, but should be sown late in order to avoid excessive growth of wheat seedlings. ⑤ Do a good job in the prevention and control of diseases and insect pests. ⑥ Grazing in wheat fields is prohibited. Grazing in wheat field will cause damage to wheat seedlings and root system to be broken, resulting in dead seedlings. The green leaves retained during winter can be photosynthesis after turning green, which is the main source of nutrients needed for the recovery of growth in spring. Therefore, grazing in wheat fields is strictly prohibited.