Understand the Wheat Ecological Regionalization in China northeast spring wheat area
Huahua: wheat is widely distributed in China. Due to different climatic conditions and different soil types, wheat is widely distributed in China plant There are differences in system, variety type, production level and management technology plant Area. According to the situation at that time, scholars in different periods of our country made many studies on wheat production in China plant Area division. As early as 1936, some scholars divided the whole country into six winter wheat regions and one spring wheat region according to climate characteristics, soil conditions and wheat production conditions. After several generations of continuous research and development, according to the application of regionalization and the needs of production development, the latest data and information were used to analyze and study the planting area, planting methods, cultivation techniques and occurrence and development trend of diseases, pests and weeds. Will the whole country Wheat planting The region is divided into 4 main areas and 10 sub regions, so as to make reasonable arrangement according to local conditions Wheat planting And variety distribution, give full play to the advantages of natural resources and wheat production potential, and provide reference for scientific research and production practice of wheat in China.
Introduction: Good morning, audience friends. Welcome to today's "get rich early bus". I'm Yang Lin.
China is a big wheat producing country. The planting area and yield of wheat are second only to rice and corn. It is not only the main food for northern residents, but also the main raw material of food industry. The annual sown area and yield account for about 25% and 22% of the total grain respectively. The annual purchase, sales and inventory of commercial wheat account for about 1 / 3 of the total grain. In terms of planting, one of the major characteristics of wheat planting in China is its wide distribution, bordering Hainan Island in the south, Mohe River in the north, Xinjiang in the West and seashore in the East, all over the country. There are great differences in climate conditions and soil environment in these areas. Therefore, scholars try to divide wheat into different regions according to geographical environment, natural conditions and climatic factors, so as to better prevent meteorological disasters and ensure the normal growth of wheat. At the same time, according to the characteristics of each region, technical contents such as conservation tillage, soil testing and formulated fertilization, high-quality and high-yield cultivation can be implemented, so as to make China's wheat production higher Effect.
As introduced at the beginning of the program, relevant experts divided the wheat planting areas in China into 4 main areas and 10 sub regions. In order to make the audience have a more in-depth understanding of China's wheat industry, we specially produced a series of "understanding the Wheat Ecological Regionalization in China". At the same time, experts from the Ministry of agriculture will put forward effective and feasible production development suggestions according to the characteristics of each region.
So, what we will introduce to you today is: northeast spring wheat area
Host: Hello everyone, today we continue to introduce the ecological division of wheat in China. The expert of our program is still Zhao Guangcai. Let's get to know each other.
Zhao Guangcai. He is a member of the wheat expert steering group of the Ministry of agriculture, the standing director of the Chinese crop society and the standing director of the Beijing crop society. For many years, he has been mainly engaged in the research of wheat growth and development law, high quality and high efficiency cultivation theory and technology. He has successively presided over a number of national, provincial and ministerial scientific research projects. Among them, the bidding project "research and application of super high yield morphological and physiological indexes and supporting technology system of wheat", which is the top priority of the state, won the second prize of science and technology progress award of Henan Province, one second prize of agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery harvest award for the "super high yield cultivation technology of wheat superior tiller utilization", and two third prizes of science and technology progress award of the Ministry of agriculture and China There are two science and technology progress awards of Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and many scientific and technological achievements of prefectures and cities.
Welcome to our program again.
Guest: Hello, host! Hello, audience!
Host: Mr. Zhao, welcome to our program again. The ecological division of wheat in China and the characteristics of each producing area are also introduced. The winter wheat area was introduced before. From today on, let's introduce the spring wheat area. As mentioned in the video just now, you also mentioned in the last program that at present, China's wheat is mainly divided into 4 main production areas and 10 sub regions. What are the specific scope of these production areas? What are the climatic characteristics and planting systems? Let's review it with our audience friends.
Guest: OK. The national wheat natural regions are divided into 4 main regions and 10 sub regions. That is, the northern winter (autumn sowing) wheat region includes the northern winter (autumn sowing) wheat region and Huanghuai winter (autumn sowing) wheat region; the southern winter (autumn sowing) wheat region includes three sub regions: Winter (autumn sowing) wheat region in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, southwest winter (autumn sowing) wheat region and South China winter (late autumn sowing) wheat region; spring (sowing) wheat region includes northeast spring (sowing) wheat region, northern spring (sowing) wheat region and Northwest China There are three sub regions of spring wheat region, winter and spring wheat region, including Xinjiang Winter and spring wheat region and Qinghai Tibet spring and winter wheat region.
Host: to understand the specific situation of northeast spring wheat area, we must first understand the overall situation of spring wheat area, right. Mr. Zhao, please introduce the general situation of chunmai District first. What areas does it cover?
Guest: spring wheat is mainly distributed in the north of the great wall and west of Minshan and Daxueshan. Most of them are located in cold, arid or plateau areas. Xinjiang, Tibet and Western Sichuan will be divided into separate regions. The spring wheat areas in this region only include Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia, most of Liaoning and Gansu provinces, and northern regions of Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces. Spring wheat area is mainly distributed in the north of China. It borders Russia and Korea in the northeast, Mongolia in the northwest, the Great Wall in the South and winter wheat area in the north in the south, Xinjiang and Qinghai Tibet in the West.
Compere: what is the climate characteristic of spring wheat area?
Guest: the accumulated temperature of ≥ 10 ℃ is about 2750 ℃ and the range is 1650 ~ 3620 ℃. The average temperature of the coldest month (January) and the annual extreme minimum temperature are about - 10 ℃ and - 30 ℃ respectively. The total solar radiation and sunshine hours increased gradually from east to west. The distribution of precipitation is quite different, and the general trend is gradually decreasing from east to west. The appearance date of phenology is gradually delayed from south to north.
Host: what kind of planting system does spring wheat generally adopt?
Therefore, it is not safe to plant wheat in autumn. It is mainly cooked once a year. There are crop rotation and intercropping, such as wheat soybean corn rotation, wheat soybean potato rotation, wheat rape wheat rotation, etc.; intercropping methods include wheat corn grain intercropping, wheat sunflower intercropping, wheat sugar intercropping, etc.
Host: Well, we also mentioned that spring wheat can be divided into three sub regions: northeast spring wheat, northern spring wheat and northwest spring wheat according to precipitation, temperature and terrain. Then let's introduce the northeast spring wheat area in detail. Mr. Zhao, what is the northeast spring wheat area?
Guest: the northeast spring wheat region is located in the northeast of China, bordering Russia in the north and East, North Korea in the southeast, Mongolia and northern spring wheat in the west, and winter wheat in the north in the south. It includes all Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces, most of Liaoning Province except Dalian and Yingkou in the south, Hulunbeier City, Xing'an League, Tongliao City and Chifeng City in the northeast of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The terrain is high in the East and the north, and the terrain in the South and East is flat. The altitude is generally 50 ~ 400m, and the highest altitude is about 1000m. Rich in land resources, deep soil layer, suitable for large-scale machine operation, especially in Heilongjiang Province.
Host: speaking of northeast spring wheat area, its climate characteristics are also very obvious, relatively cold, and the cold time is relatively long. Right, Miss Zhao?
Guest: because this area is a continental monsoon climate from the middle temperate zone to the cold temperate zone, the winter is long and cold, and the summer is short and warm. The sunshine is sufficient, and the temperature increases from north to south, with a big difference [HTTPS: / / www.nczfj. COM /]. For example, the average annual temperature in Heilongjiang Province is - 6 ~ 4 ℃, Jilin Province is 3 ~ 5 ℃, and Liaoning Province is 7 ~ 1 ℃. The lowest temperature was below - 50 ℃ in northern Mohe. This region is a wheat area with the lowest temperature in China. The short frost free period and insufficient heat are the main characteristics of this region. The precipitation is usually more than 600mm, most in the eastern mountainous and hilly areas of Liaoning Province, annual precipitation can reach 1100mm, and the precipitation in plain areas is mostly about 600mm. The precipitation in wheat growing period is 200 ~ 300 mm, which is the most precipitation area in spring wheat region of China. The distribution of precipitation is uneven among seasons. More than 60% of the annual precipitation is concentrated in June to August, and there is little precipitation from March to may, and there is often strong wind. As a result, wheat sowing in some areas often encounters drought, and mature wheat can not be harvested in time due to more precipitation. The climate characteristics of the region are generally cold in the north, humid in the East and arid in the West.
Host: good, Mr. Zhao summed up the climatic characteristics of northeast spring wheat area for me, that is, the north is cold, the East is humid, and the west is dry. As we all know, Northeast China is also called "black land", which also shows its soil characteristics. Is this soil suitable for wheat planting? Miss Zhao.
Guest: the soil types of spring wheat area in Northeast China are mainly chernozem, meadow soil, swamp soil and saline soil. Chernozem is the most widely distributed in Songliao, Songnen and Sanjiang Plain, with thick humus layer, rich mineral nutrition, good soil structure and high natural fertility. Meadow soil is distributed in the low-lying areas of the plains and the banks along the river, with high fertility and poor water permeability. Salinized soil is mainly distributed in the western region, which is muddy when wet and hard when dry, and has poor tillering and air permeability.
Host: so what are the main crops?
Guest: the main crops are corn, spring wheat, soybean, rice, potato, sorghum, millet, etc. The planting system is mainly one crop a year, and spring wheat is often alternated with soybean, corn, millet, potato and sorghum.
What are the characteristics of wheat production in this area?
The heading date of wheat was gradually delayed from early July to the last ten days of July. The growth period of wheat is 100 ~ 120 days, which is gradually extended from south to north.
Host: what about diseases and insect pests
Guest: there is a lot of precipitation in the late growth period of wheat, and scab often occurs, which is one of the important diseases of wheat in this region. Drought in the early spring and high temperature and rain in the late stage created conditions for the occurrence of root rot, mainly including seedling rot, leaf blight and ear rot. Leaf rust, powdery mildew, loose smut, yellow dwarf and cluster dwarf also occurred in different degrees in different regions. The underground pests are conifer, mole cricket, grub, etc. in the middle and late growth stage of wheat, myxomycetes and aphids are often damaged. Oat grass is the most serious weed in wheat field.
Host: in view of the environmental characteristics and production characteristics of this area, how should we better carry out wheat planting? Miss Zhao.
Guest: attention should be paid to the selection of early maturing, high yield and high quality varieties in wheat production. We should promote conservation tillage, advocate less tillage, no tillage and subsoiling, implement straw mulching, stubble mulching, wind and moisture conservation, snow cover, reduce wind blown dust and prevent surface soil loss. In the eastern humid area, attention should be paid to trenching and drainage to prevent dampness. Attention should be paid to increasing organic fertilizer, protecting soil fertility, properly planting green manure crops, and combining land use and land cultivation to prevent soil fertility degradation. Prevention and control of Fusarium wilt should be strengthened. Control weeds in wheat field in time. Timely harvest, air drying and storage to avoid or reduce the loss caused by rain. Soil testing, balanced fertilization and high yield and high efficiency cultivation techniques were applied to improve yield, quality and benefit.
Host: OK, I'll introduce you to the details of northeast spring wheat area. In the future program, Mr. Zhao will continue to introduce the situation of other wheat areas. You are welcome to listen. Next, enter the leading variety section of the Ministry of agriculture in 2013, and introduce the excellent wheat variety Longmai 33.
Well, thank you, Mr. Zhao, for coming to our program.
Longmai 33 was bred by Crop Breeding Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences.
It was approved by Heilongjiang Provincial crop variety examination and Approval Committee in 2009 and national crop variety Approval Committee in 2010.
This variety is late maturing, dry and fertilizer type. The growth period is 95 days. The prophase development was slow. Drought resistance is prominent. The plant height is 95-100 cm. The stem is strong and lodging resistant. The ear layer is neat and resistant to many diseases. The results showed that the filling speed was fast, the yellowing was good at the later stage, and the grains were full. It has awn, red grain and high cuticle rate. The 1000 grain weight was about 35-38 g, and the bulk weight was 816 g / L. The results of quality analysis from 2007 to 2008 were as follows: protein content 18.1%, wet gluten 38.2%, stable time 14.2 min, bulk density 816.0 g / L. All the test results are far beyond the quality standard of strong gluten wheat.
In terms of yield performance: from 2006 to 2008, we participated in the regional test in northern Heilongjiang Province, and all the six experiments increased yield, with an average yield of 294.3kg per mu, which was 6.9% higher than that of xinkehanjiu. In 2008, the average yield per mu was 260.6 kg, which was 9.2% higher than the control variety xinkehanjiu
According to the local climate, it is the best to plant beans in summer. With wide seedling belt sowing method, 7 million seedlings per hectare were protected.
5-5 kg of pure potassium oxide is suitable for 5-5 kg of pure potassium oxide. The best way of fertilization is to apply base fertilizer (2 / 3) in autumn, seed fertilizer (1 / 3) in spring and foliar topdressing in late stage.
Field management and harvest: 1-2 times of 3-4 leaf stage, weeding at three leaf stage, and spraying chlormequat once at jointing stage to achieve the purpose of strengthening stem and preventing lodging. From heading to flowering stage, combined with disease control, spraying n, K fertilizer, timely harvest to prevent ear germination.
It is suitable for planting in the north of Hulunbeir and Inner Mongolia.
Host: at the end of the program, we will focus on a news recently released by the Ministry of agriculture.
In recent years, the National Conference on wheat seed dressing and pest control will be held in Zhengzhou, which will reduce the pressure of wheat seed dressing in autumn and spring, and achieve 90% higher than that in the next year.
In recent years, it has been proved that seed dressing (coating) with chemicals in autumn sowing is an effective measure to achieve source control, winter control of spring diseases and winter control of spring insects. Seed dressing with fungicides in autumn sowing of wheat can not only effectively protect the whole seedling, prevent and control the diseases and insect pests at seedling stage, but also significantly reduce the pressure of prevention and control in the spring of next year. At present, seed dressing technology is more and more mature, the effect is more and more prominent, farmers are more and more recognized, and the application area is increasing year by year. According to statistics, nearly 300 million mu was implemented in 2012, accounting for 87% of the winter wheat planting area.
According to the meeting, seed dressing (coating) of wheat chemicals in autumn sowing should adhere to the principle of "highlighting the key points, giving consideration to the general, giving priority to prevention, comprehensive management, adjusting measures to local conditions and guiding by classification". In the northwest wheat region, wheat stripe rust was mainly controlled, and powdery mildew, loose smut and underground pests were taken into account; in the southwest and Hanshui River Basin, wheat stripe rust and underground pests were mainly controlled, and powdery mildew and aphids were also controlled; in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Huanghuai Hai wheat region, the control of sheath blight and underground pests was the main control, and the control of loose smut, powdery mildew and aphids was also taken into account. The soil treatment before sowing should be emphasized in the area where the local take all disease and cyst nematode occur again.
It was pointed out at the meeting that seed dressing (coating) with chemicals for autumn sowing of wheat is the first battle of plant protection, disaster prevention and mitigation, and the first step to control the occurrence and damage of wheat diseases and insect pests. At present, autumn wheat sowing is imminent, and agricultural plant protection institutions at all levels should take immediate action to strengthen "Five" and ensure "Five". The first is to strengthen the mobilization and deployment, give full play to the role of specialized prevention and control service organizations and village collective organizations, strive to achieve unified organization, unified launch and unified implementation, and ensure that publicity and guidance are in place; the second is to strengthen material preparation, timely organize and do a good job of marketable chemicals and seed dressing equipment and other spare parts to ensure that they are constantly in place and not out of stock; the third is to strengthen technical guidance and plant protection machines at all levels It is necessary to strengthen the monitoring and investigation of diseases and insect pests, seriously analyze the situation of local soil borne, seed borne and seedling diseases and insect pests, clarify the key prevention and control objects, ensure that farmers are guided to suit the right medicine and scientific seed dressing; fourth, strengthen publicity and training, and strive to ensure that each farmer has an understanding of the prevention and control technology, and each administrative village has a person who understands the technology of wheat seed dressing in autumn and winter There is a technical guidance expert in each township (town) to ensure that the prevention and control technology is implemented from household to field; fifthly, strengthen supervision and inspection, and take seed dressing (coating) of wheat autumn sowing chemicals as the key technical measures to serve autumn and winter seed production, and effectively increase the supervision and inspection efforts to ensure the realization of the expected seed dressing goal.
The meeting stressed that it is necessary to do a good job in the prevention and control of wheat diseases and insect pests in autumn and winter, and comprehensively implement the prevention and control measures of wheat stripe rust in the southwest, northwest and Hanshui River basins, strive to achieve the control and disposal rate of 100%, effectively reduce the local hazards and external pathogen sources, reduce the epidemic risk in the spring of next year, and lay a solid foundation for achieving next year's summer grain harvest.