High yield cultivation techniques of Atractylodes macrocephala Cultivation of Atractylodes macrocephala new technique
Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz is an important and commonly used Chinese herbal medicine. Atractylodes macrocephala is the dry rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala, also known as Atractylodes macrocephala, Atractylodes macrocephala, etc. It has the functions of invigorating the spleen and stomach, drying dampness and diuresis, stopping sweating and preventing pregnancy. Atractylodes macrocephala is a perennial herb of Compositae. Its rhizome is used for medicine. It is one of the four famous medicines of "Shen, Shu, Ling, Gan". It has the functions of invigorating the spleen and stomach, drying dampness, moving water and preventing pregnancy. The following specific to understand: Atractylodes macrocephala high-yield cultivation techniques Cultivation of Atractylodes macrocephala New technology.
（1） The premise for Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz to obtain high yield and quality is to select the land carefully and sow in time; It is suitable to choose the slightly acid yellow mud sandy soil with high and dry terrain, cool climate, sufficient sunshine, altitude above 350m, deep soil layer and underground water level below LM, convenient drainage and irrigation, and fields with gramineous crops for more than 5 years Green land planting 。 This can not only reduce the harm of diseases and insect pests, but also benefit the full development of Atractylodes macrocephala root system and lay a foundation for high yield. Atractylodes macrocephala from "cold" to "Qingming" plant , but too early plant It is not only late but also susceptible to mildew plant It has no effect on the growth and quality of seedlings. According to the test of strong water absorption, the root system of "Zhejing" was the best. The increase in production is large.
（2） Reasonable density planting, moderate depth, Atractylodes macrocephala should choose vigorous growth, disease resistance, high yield and good quality of fragrant stem or large leaf species, reasonable close planting. If the planting density is too thin, the yield is not high; if the planting density is too thin, the yield is not high; if the planting density is too small, the yield is not high; if the number of rhizomes is large, the individual is small, and the yield is not high. Generally, the stems and leaves of Atractylodes macrocephala don't overlap with each other after growing up. It can be used for border planting, the width of border is 1.2-1.3m, turtle back shape; the width of furrow is 23-27cm, and the depth is 20-23cm. Each plot was planted at 25x20cm row spacing, with 11000-12000 Atractylodes macrocephala per 667m2. In the early stage, the tillers are not easy to be damaged because of the low temperature and low temperature. Generally, 5-7cm depth and 3cm soil mulching after planting are the best, which are beneficial to complete and strong seedlings, reduce sprouting "tillers" and enhance plant resistance.
（3） The yield of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz was 350 kg with 667 m2 of "four fertilizers". Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and borax were 24-26 kg, 15-17 kg, 13-15 kg and 0.5-0.7 kg, respectively. 1. Base fertilizer. Organic fertilizer should be used as the main fertilizer. The compost should be 1500-2000kg, human manure 750-1000kg, cake fertilizer 50-60kg, burnt ash 2000-2500kg, superphosphate 30-40kg, borax 0.5-0.7kg per 667m2. 2. Seedling fat. Early and light. Generally, the seedling height was about 10 cm before and after "Grain Rain", and 300-400 kg of diluted human manure or 10 kg of ammonium bicarbonate were applied to promote the growth of seedlings. 3. Straw fertilizer. In order to meet the fertilizer demand of Atractylodes macrocephala before and after "Xiaoman", 500-600kg human manure or 15-17kg compound fertilizer should be applied in 667 M2 when the seedling height is about 30cm before and after "Xiaoman". 4. Rhizome fertilizer. When the rhizome began to expand before and after the "small summer heat", 25-30kg rotten vegetable cake, 750-900kg human feces and urine, (or 30kg compound fertilizer), 25kg superphosphate and 40kg ammonium bicarbonate were applied to 667 m2 to meet the fertilizer requirements of rhizome expansion period. At this stage, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate plus 0.2% borax mixture should be sprayed 1-2 times to promote rhizome expansion.
（4） Careful management, chemical control control of Atractylodes macrocephala management general requirements is to achieve "four no": no diseases and pests, no weeds, no tillers, no water, to achieve strong seedlings and healthy plants. Because the root system of Atractylodes macrocephala is close to the ground, and it is close to the ground, intertillage should be shallow and the frequency should be less. In the seedling stage, it should be combined with soil cultivation for 1-2 times. After the stem formed, it was changed to manual weeding. In case of drought, water should be timely watered to resist drought, and ditch clearing and soil cultivation should be carried out frequently. After the end of topdressing, mow and pave the ground before the "big summer" to reduce the growth of weeds and evaporation of ground water, avoid the splash of rain on the soil, and reduce the spread of pathogens on the soil surface. In order to make the nutrient centralized supply for the growth of rhizomes and promote the expansion of rhizomes, it is necessary to remove the "tillers", cut off the "branches" and pave the ground and branch in time; from the budding to flowering and after the general "summer solstice", cut off the Shu Pu every 6-7 days, 3-4 times continuously, and cut clean each time, and the cutting mouth should be flat to facilitate the wound "healing". The tillers, cattles, stems and branches should be taken out of the field for centralized treatment. In order to prevent Atractylodes macrocephala from lodging, spraying 600 times of "Atractylodes macrocephala" 1-2 times before and after "ear seed" to promote deep root, vigorous root, strong stem and healthy plant. Enhance the anti collapse ability.
（5） Comprehensive control and timely spraying of pests and diseases of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz is the key to the success of Atractylodes macrocephala cultivation. The main diseases were white rot and root blight. On the basis of good agricultural control, chemical control should be focused on: before sowing, use 402 "600" times or 70% thiophanate methyl 700 times to plant to prevent "four diseases", at the same time, after the seedlings of Atractylodes macrocephala were sprayed with 600 times of 20% diketazone or 800 times of 77% stable killing solution; In the middle of May, the roots of root rot were treated with 700 times of "high comprehensive agent" or 600 times of 75% chlorothalonil before the onset of the disease; and the root of white silk disease was prevented by watering the root with 20% monocrotophos 800 times solution before the onset of the disease in late may. The above two diseases were sprayed once every 15-20 days after the first application, and the control effect was more than 95%. After spraying the same amount of Bordeaux solution or 700 times of "high comprehensive agent" once in mid April, the field inspection should be strengthened, and the disease center should be sprayed timely to prevent and control iron leaf disease. The main pests of Atractylodes macrocephala are aphids, grubs, scarabs and so on. When the amount of Atractylodes macrocephala was more than 700 per 100 strains, the aphids were sprayed with 1000 times of 40% dimethoate. For the control of grubs, scarabs, root aphids and other underground pests, Furadan 2-2.5kg mixed with fine mud should be applied to the bottom of planting hole every 667 m2. In addition, 50% phoxim or 50% methamidophos 1000 times solution should be used for root control in combination with stem and root stalk fertilizer. Other diseases and insect pests should also be controlled in time.
（6） Timely harvest, quality and quantity, premature harvest of Atractylodes macrocephala, high water content, low fresh dry conversion rate, long drying time, affect the yield and quality. Generally, after being beaten by frost, the stems and leaves wither, the upper leaves harden and become brittle, the lower leaves turn yellow, and "frost falls" to "winter" harvest. At this time, the roots and stems are old and ripe, and the yield and quality are high. It is not suitable to delay the occurrence of root shoot and root bud after winter harvest.
High yield Cultivation Techniques
Soil preparation and fertilization
The nursery site should choose the slightly acid sandy loam with medium fertility, good drainage and cool ventilation, apply 2000 kg of farm manure to 667 square meters, plough deeply, rake level and fine, and make 1.2 meter wide border. It is suitable to choose fertile sandy soil, good drainage of 5 years. After harvest, 3000 kg of farmyard manure was applied to 667 square meters, and 50 kg of superphosphate was applied as base fertilizer.
Propagate with seeds. In production, the method of raising seedlings and transplanting is mainly used.
(1) Seedling raising: from the last ten days of March to the first ten days of April, the new species with plump seeds and no diseases and insect pests were selected and soaked in the warm water at 30 ℃ for 1 day, and then the seeds were pulled out and sowed. Drill or sow. Before sowing, the drill sower shall open a ditch with a row spacing of 15 cm and a depth of 4-6 cm. The furrow shall be irrigated with water. After sowing, the seeds shall be covered with soil, slightly suppressed, and covered with grass on the border for heat preservation and moisture preservation, and then water shall be poured once more. 5-7 kg per 667 m2. 7-10 days after sowing, remove the cover grass after emergence, and strengthen the field management. Before transplanting in winter, 400-600 kg fresh technique could be cultivated in 667 square meters.
(2) Transplanting: it can be transplanted from the winter of that year to the spring of the next year. The best one is that the main bud is strong, the rhizome is small and neat, and the apricot kernel is large. When transplanting, the fibrous roots should be cut off, and a ditch with a depth of 10 cm should be opened according to the row spacing of 25 cm. The seedlings should be put into the ditch according to the plant spacing of about 15 cm, with the tooth tips upward and level with the ground. After planting, both sides were slightly suppressed and watered after planting. Generally, 667 square meters need fresh Atractylodes macrocephala 50-60 kg.
(1) Management of planting site: weeds should be removed in time after seedlings are unearthed and seedlings should be thinned according to the plant spacing of 4-6 cm. Weeding can reduce water evaporation between plants such as drought. If conditions permit, watering can be carried out in the morning and evening to resist drought. If bolting is found in the late growth stage, it should be removed in time.
(2) Field management
① Weeding by intertillage: there are many weeds in the field from the seedling excavation to May. The weeding should be done frequently. The first few times of cultivation can be deeper, and later shallow weeding should be carried out. After the middle of May, the plant enters into the peak growth period, and it is generally no longer cultivated. If there are weeds among the plants, they can be removed by hand.
② Fertilization: before and after budding, topdressing can be applied once. For 667 square meters, 20kg urea and 30kg compound fertilizer should be applied in the furrow between rows, and then covered with soil and watered. One week after picking buds, you can apply fertilizer once.
③ Irrigation and drainage: during the growth period of Atractylodes macrocephala, sufficient water is needed, especially in the period of rhizome expansion. In case of drought, timely watering should be carried out. In case of ponding after rain, timely drainage shall be carried out.
④ Bud picking: the plant begins to bud in the middle of June. Generally, the buds are removed in batches from the beginning of bud to the beginning of flowering in the first and middle days of July. Picking buds is beneficial to improve the yield and quality of rhizomes of Atractylodes macrocephala. It should be noted that weeding, fertilization, bud picking and other field operations should be carried out after the dew dries.
⑤ Cover grass: in high temperature season in July, we can spread a layer of leaves and wheat bran on the surface to regulate the ground temperature and make Atractylodes macrocephala safe in summer.
(3) Diseases and insect pests: common diseases include Damping off, leaf blight, white silk disease (root rot), root rot, rust, seed insects, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, mosaic disease, armyworm, aphid, root knot nematode, cutworm, Cuscuta chinensis, etc.
White atractylodes macrocephala disease and insect pests more, common have the following several.
(1) Rhizoctonia solanacearum is easy to occur at low temperature and high humidity, which often occurs in the planting area and damages the roots and stems. Control method: reduce the field humidity; in the early stage of the disease, use 50% carbendazim 1000 times liquid irrigation.
(2) Iron leaf disease is also known as leaf blight. It starts in April, especially in June and August, and damages the leaves. Control method: remove the diseased plants, use Bordeaux solution of 1 ∶ 1 ∶ 100 in the early stage of the disease, and spray with 50% tobezin or carbendazim 1000 times solution in the later stage.
(3) White silk disease is also called root rot. The incidence period was the same as above, and damaged the rhizome. Control methods: rotation with gramineous crops; removing diseased plants and disinfecting diseased pits with quicklime powder; disinfecting soil with Trichoderma harzianum before planting.
(4) Root rot is also known as rotten root disease. The incidence period is the same as above, especially when the humidity is high. Control methods: breeding disease resistant varieties; rotation with gramineous crops, or water and drought rotation; soaking seeds with 1000 times of 50% carbendazim for 5-10 minutes before planting; watering the diseased area with 50% carbendazim or 50% thiophanate methyl 1000 times at the initial stage of disease onset. In areas seriously damaged by underground pests, it can be irrigated with 1000-1500 times of dimethoate or 800 times of trichlorfon.
(5) Rust starts in May and damages leaves. Control method: clean the countryside; spray 1000 times of 25% Triadimefon at the beginning of the disease.
(6) The insect starts at the early stage of flowering and damages the seeds. The control methods included deep ploughing, rotation of paddy and drought, spraying 800 times of 80% dichlorvos at the beginning of flowering.
In addition, there are Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, mosaic disease, aphid, root knot nematode, Cuscuta chinensis, Agrotis vulgaris and so on.
In the planting year of harvesting and processing, the suitable harvest time is from late October to mid November when the stems and leaves of Atractylodes macrocephala begin to wither. When harvesting, dig out the rhizomes, cut off the stalks, and transport them back for processing. When drying, the temperature can be controlled between 90-100 ℃. When water vapor appears, it should be cooled to 60-70 ℃ and turned up and down for 2-3 hours. When the fibrous roots are dried, they are taken out to sweat for 7-10 days. Then they are dried until they are completely dry, and the residual stems and fibrous roots are rubbed off. The products with thick meat, no high stem, no fibrous root, firm and not hollow, cross-section color yellow and white, rich aroma is preferred. In general, 667 square meters produce dry goods of 200-400 kg, dry rate of 30%.
Seed reservation Technology
The seed retention of Atractylodes macrocephala can be divided into plant selection and slice selection, the former can improve the purity of seeds. Generally, from July to August, the plants with strong plants, small branches, large leaves and flat and large buds are selected as mother plants for seed retention. It is better to leave 5-6 buds per plant if late or early blooming buds are removed. The seeds were collected in the first and middle of November. On a sunny day, the plants are dug up and cut off the underground rhizomes. The ground parts are bundled into small bundles. They are hung upside down under the eaves for 20-30 days before ripening. Then they are dried for one or two days. They are threshed and removed from fuzz and shriveled seeds. They are put into cloth bags or sacks and stored in ventilated and cool places. The seeds of Atractylodes macrocephala should not be dried for a long time, otherwise the germination rate will be reduced.
Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz is an important and commonly used Chinese herbal medicine. It has the functions of invigorating the spleen and stomach, drying dampness and diuresis, stopping sweating and preventing abortion. Modern research shows that rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala contains volatile oil, the main components of which are atractylone, atractylol and atractylolide. It has certain curative effect on the treatment of cirrhotic ascites, primary liver cancer, Meniere's syndrome, chronic low back pain, acute enteritis and leukopenia. Atractylodes macrocephala is widely used. In addition to medical prescription, Atractylodes macrocephala is an important raw material of more than 40 kinds of Chinese patent medicine preparations.